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§8.8 Electric properties of colloids PowerPoint Presentation
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§8.8 Electric properties of colloids

§8.8 Electric properties of colloids

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§8.8 Electric properties of colloids

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  1. §8.8 Electric properties of colloids

  2. - - + + sands clay clay 1) Electrokinetic phenomenon of colloids The experiments done by PeNcc in 1809 demonstrated that both colloidal particles and dispersion medium are charged and can move under electric fields. The colloidal particles of clay is negatively charged. A colloidal particle may has hundreds of charge.

  3. Electrokinetic phenomena: • Electrophoresis: • the motion of colloidal particles under the action of an electric field. 2) Electro-osmosis: the motion of dispersion medium under electric field

  4. Positively charged sols: metallic oxide sol, metallic hydroxide sol and some dyes. Negatively charged sols: metal, metallic sulphide, sulfur, clay, paper, silicic acid. Some sol, such as AgI sol, can be either positively charged or negatively charged. Lyophilic sols (protein solution): can be positively, negatively charged or neutral depending on the pH and the colloids.

  5. OH H+ R-CH-COO R-CH-COO NH3+ NH2 NH3+ 2) Origination of charge (1) Ionization and unequal dissolution: Silica sol: H2SiO3 = 2H+ + SiO32- clay, glass, soap, biological macromolecules AgI sol: dissolution of Ag+ is more readily than that of I- proteins R-CH-COOH The pH at which protein does not move under electric field is named as isoelectric point.

  6. K+ K+ K+ K+ I- I- I- (AgI)m I- I- K+ K+ I- I- K+ I- I- I- K+ K+ K+ (2) Adsorption: AgI, when prepared by adding KI into dilute AgNO3 solution, positively charged AgI sol can be prepared. While by adding AgNO3 into KI solution, negatively charged AgI sol was obtained. AgI sol: AgNO3 + KI: Ag+, I, K+, NO3 Fajans rule of preferential adsorption Sols preferentially adsorb ions comprising itself, and then the ions with higher charges. Co-ions /similiions; counterions

  7. [(AgI)m· n I– · (n-x)K+ ]xx K+ Colloidal core Compact layer Diffusion layer Surface charge Colloidal particle Colloid (3) Substitution of crystal lattice: Caolin: {[m(Al3.34Mg0.66)(Si8O20)(OH)4]0.66m-(0.66-x)Na+}x- xNa+ (4) Dielectric difference Water droplet in petroleum is negatively charged.

  8. +  + + E   + + E   + +   + Plane of shear +  +    + +  E +  + 0   +  +  + d +  0   + + +  d  + 0  +  + d 3) Electric double layer and electrokinetic potential    Stern double layer (1924) Holmholtz double layer (1853) Gouy-Chappman layer (1910, 1913) Electrokinetic potential /  (zeta) potential Effect of electrolyte concentration on structure of electric double layer

  9. K+ K+ K+ K+ I- I- I- (AgI)m I- I- K+ K+ I- I-  K+ I- I- I- K+ K+ c=0.001 c=0.01 c=0.004  K+ Co-ions especially with higher charges will decrease zeta potential of the colloidal particle. As the concentration of electrolyte increases, electrokinetic potential decreases. Isoelectric state Compression of diffuse layer

  10. 4) Electrophoresis For electrophoresis with constant velocity Electrophoretic mobility

  11. Apparatus for electrophoresis microscope

  12. solution Starch gel Paper Electrophoresis can be used for separation and detection of macromolecules. Electrophoretogram: protein: globulin(血红蛋白), albumin (血清蛋白), ribose (核糖)

  13. The indicated proteins are present in different concentrations in the two samples. DNA gel electrophoresis

  14. + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 5) Electroosmosis Glass capillary Sedimentation potential Streaming potential