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Chapter 5 Light: The Cosmic Messenger

Chapter 5 Light: The Cosmic Messenger

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Chapter 5 Light: The Cosmic Messenger

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  1. Chapter 5Light: The Cosmic Messenger

  2. 5.1 Basic Properties of Light and Matter Our goals for learning: • What is light? • What is matter? • How do light and matter interact?

  3. What is light?

  4. Light is an electromagnetic wave.

  5. Anatomy of a Wave

  6. Wavelength and Frequency wavelength  frequency = speed of light = constant

  7. The Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum

  8. Particles of Light • Particles of light are called photons. • Each photon has a wavelength and a frequency. • The energy of a photon depends on its frequency.

  9. Wavelength, Frequency, and Energy l f = c l = wavelength, f = frequency c = 3.00  108 m/s = speed of light E = h f = photon energy h = 6.626  10−34 joule  s = photon energy

  10. Thought Question The higher the photon energy, • the longer its wavelength. • the shorter its wavelength. • Energy is independent of wavelength.

  11. Thought Question The higher the photon energy, • the longer its wavelength. • the shorter its wavelength. • Energy is independent of wavelength.

  12. What is matter?

  13. Atomic Terminology • Atomic Number = # of protons in nucleus • Atomic Mass Number = # of protons + neutrons

  14. Atomic Terminology • Isotope: same # of protons but different # of neutrons (4He, 3He) • Molecules: consist of two or more atoms (H2O, CO2)

  15. How do light and matter interact? • Emission • Absorption • Transmission: • Transparent objects transmit light. • Opaque objects block (absorb) light. • Reflection or scattering

  16. Reflection and Scattering Mirror reflects light in a particular direction. Movie screen scatters light in all directions.

  17. Interactions of Light with Matter Interactions between light and matter determine the appearance of everything around us.

  18. Thought Question Why is a rose red? • The rose absorbs red light. • The rose transmits red light. • The rose emits red light. • The rose reflects red light.

  19. Thought Question Why is a rose red? • The rose absorbs red light. • The rose transmits red light. • The rose emits red light. • The rose reflects red light.

  20. What have we learned? • What is light? • Light is a form of energy. • Light comes in many colors that combine to form white light. • Light is an electromagnetic wave that also comes in individual “pieces” called photos. Each photo has a precise wavelength, frequency, and energy. • Forms of light are radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, and gamma rays. • What is matter? • Ordinary matter is made of atoms, which are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

  21. What have we learned? • How does light interact with matter? • Matter can emit light, absorb light, transmit light, and reflect (or scatter) light. • Interactions between light and matter determine the appearance of everything we see.

  22. 5.2 Learning from Light Our goals for learning: • What are the three basic types of spectra? • How does light tell us what things are made of? • How does light tell us the temperatures of planets and stars? • How does light tell us the speed of a distant object?

  23. What are the three basic types of spectra? Continuous Spectrum Emission Line Spectrum Absorption Line Spectrum Spectra of astrophysical objects are usually combinations of these three basic types.

  24. Introduction to Spectroscopy

  25. Three Types of Spectra Illustrating Kirchhof's Laws

  26. Continuous Spectrum • The spectrum of a common (incandescent) light bulb spans all visible wavelengths, without interruption.

  27. Emission Line Spectrum • A thin or low-density cloud of gas emits light only at specific wavelengths that depend on its composition and temperature, producing a spectrum with bright emission lines.

  28. Absorption Line Spectrum • A cloud of gas between us and a light bulb can absorb light of specific wavelengths, leaving dark absorption lines in the spectrum.

  29. How does light tell us what things are made of? Spectrum of the Sun

  30. Chemical Fingerprints • Each type of atom has a unique set of energy levels. • Each transition corresponds to a unique photon energy, frequency, and wavelength. Energy levels of hydrogen

  31. Chemical Fingerprints • Downward transitions produce a unique pattern of emission lines.

  32. Production of Emission Lines

  33. Chemical Fingerprints • Because those atoms can absorb photons with those same energies, upward transitions produce a pattern of absorption lines at the same wavelengths.

  34. Production of Absorption Lines

  35. Production of Emission Lines

  36. Chemical Fingerprints • Each type of atom has a unique spectral fingerprint.

  37. Composition of a Mystery Gas

  38. Chemical Fingerprints • Observing the fingerprints in a spectrum tells us which kinds of atoms are present.

  39. Example: Solar Spectrum

  40. Thought QuestionWhich letter(s) labels absorption lines? A B C D E

  41. Thought QuestionWhich letter(s) labels absorption lines? A B C D E

  42. Thought Question Which letter(s) labels the peak (greatest intensity) of infrared light? A B C D E

  43. Thought Question Which letter(s) labels the peak (greatest intensity) of infrared light? A B C D E

  44. Thought QuestionWhich letter(s) labels emission lines? A B C D E

  45. Thought QuestionWhich letter(s) labels emission lines? A B C D E

  46. How does light tell us the temperatures of planets and stars?

  47. Thermal Radiation • Nearly all large or dense objects emit thermal radiation, including stars, planets, and you. • An object’s thermal radiation spectrum depends on only one property: its temperature.

  48. Properties of Thermal Radiation Hotter objects emit more light at all frequencies per unit area. Hotter objects emit photons with a higher average energy.

  49. Wien’s Law Wien’s Laws