CHAPTER 15[AMERICAN COLONY] CAMBA, ESTRERA, GAYOSO, LACERNA, LEE, TAN, TOMINEZ, UGADDAN
THE CONTINUING RESISTANCE • The capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo at Palanan, Isabela in 1901.The Filipnino-American war ended. • The resistance can be conveniently seen in three sectoral perspectives: Christian, Muslim, and Tribal.
THE KATIPUNAN INERTIA • After the Aguinaldo-led resistance ended, The inertia of the katipunan revolution that began from Bonifacio continued. • The remaining leader of the the Aguinaldo Army: General Miguel Malvar in Batangas, General Vicente Lukban in Samar, and other remaining officers continued the war in their respective areas. • The most prominent of the final efforts to continue the revolutionary struggle in Luzon was led by MacarioSakay, from 1902 to 1906 in Bulacan, Pampanga, Laguna, Nueva Ecija and Rizal. • Sakay was eventually persuaded by Dominador Gomez to yield.
IN LUZON 1905 • The resistance was reported by the americans in the strategic areas of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. • In Luzon in 1905, disturbance were reported in Cavite and Batangas. • Governer David Shanks of Cavite noted outbreaks at San Pedro Tunasan, Paranaque, Taal, and San Francisco de Malabon. • The leaders of the resistence were former officers of the revolutionary army who were respected by the people. • The conditions of the province led the resistance movement • By 1907, the mystification of the resistance had expressed itself in a strong mass movement led by Salvador Felipe.
He was known as “Apo Ipe” by his intimates. • His movement was called the Santa Iglesia Movement which means crusade of the “Holy Cross . • Salvador and his church gained a number of followers in the regions of Pampanga, Bulacan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija. • Weakening of the inertia by the year 1910, hv found a a short-lived outbreak in Nueva Ecija led by Simeon Mandac. • The policy of rapid filipinization initiated by Governor General Francis BurtonHarrison in 1913. Led to the Filipino’s elite successful campaign to win Filipino masses.
IN BICOL 1902 • One of the movements that worried the americans was led by Simeon Ola and about 1500 insurrectos (rebel) in Albay. • He was a hero of the Philippine Revolution and the last general to surrender to American forces during the Philippine-American War. • Col. Harry H. Bandholtznoted the significance role of Ola in the anti-colonial resistance, he regarded Ola as nothing but a ladron (thief) • Reconcentration System was the answer of the Americans to Ola’s movement. (March-October 1903) • The effect of the system was, inadequate food and accommodation’s to the people brought into the reconcentration area. Therefore, Diseases took their death toll and sufferings continued.
About 300,000 was estimated total casualities of the reconcentration system. • Governer Taft justify the method a “reign of terror” had been inaugurated by Ola in the province and other areas. • Negotiations were initiated by the authorities to persuade Ola to surrender. • Vice Governor Luke Wright and Dr.TrinidadPadro de Taverawent to Albay to help bring Ola to surrender to avoid the deployment of the U.S army. • September 22, 1903, Colonel Bandholtzsigned an agreement with Ola Promising the latter immunity and other things” • By October, Ola finally surrendere, he felt it was better than the prospect of being confronted by the U.S troops that would be ordered to get him and his men. 500 to 600 of his followers joined the surrender.
Ola turned state witness against those who had joined him. • Ola was given thirsty yeas of prison for turning state witness.
IN VISAYAS 1902 • SAMAR AND LEYTE – presented a serious challenge to the American Colony • “JETSAMS AND FLOTSAMS” –popular image of liberators and benefactors of the poor • BRIG. GEN. WILLIAM H. CARTER –reported that large portion of samarenos left their homes to join the bands (rebels). William H. Carter
(IN VISAYAS) 1906 • Vice Gov. Henry C. Ide • -ordered Gov. George Curry of Samar to persecute all the people who joined the “pulahan movement” • Pulahanes – name given to the insurrectos • March 24, 1906 –Taylor and Curry had an agreement with the pulahanes to surrender • Nasario Aguilar – (leader of pulahanes)attacked the constabulary garrison JULY 1904 1905 Similar outbreaks in the island of Negros, Panay, Cebu, Leyte • Tauiran affair -100 houses were burned, 21 people were killed • Cantaguic affair–the police lieutenant of the town and others were killed • Juliano Caducoy – (leader of the raiders) led the killing of the local teniente on command and the burning of american flag
IN LEYTE 1906 (IN VISAYAS) • Jaime de Veyra– (governor of Leyte) is the most obnoxious anti-american leader in the archipelago • 1907 – American declaration of peace
IN MINDANAO 1903 • William Howard Taft - reported that a group of “outlaws” entered the town of Surigao • and attacked the Constabulary under Capt. Clark. The captain was killed and the attackers • Mr. Luther S. Kelly – (provincial treasurer and indian scout of yellow stone) held the attackers while waiting for reinforcement • Murderers of Capt. Clark were captured and hanged. • Pres. Theodore Roosevelt commended Kelly for his heroic deed • Misamis(May 1903)- the resistance is unlike in Surigao because real insurrectos were part of the resistance.
Panglima Hassan • siit- a secret landing of Wood’s campaign against Hassan. • Col. Hugh W. Scott- captured Hassan September 22, 1853 – April 30, 1934
Jolo- is where Hassan was to be taken for imprisonment when he was captured.
Moro-patient intelligence -brought confirmed reports of Hassan’s location in the crater of Bud Bagsak.
Krises and Barungs- weapons used A Malay or Indonesian dagger with a wavy blade. known as kalis in the southern Philippines a thick, leaf-shaped, single-edged blade sword. It is a weapon used by Islamic tribes in the Southern Philippines.
26- Bullet wounds sustained in Hassan’s body • Renegade Pala- followed the Panglima’s exploits after Hassan’s death -Authorities had been looking for him after a series of murderous robberies associated with him in Borneo. -Organized his own rebel band and defied American rule from 1905-1906.
They were responsible for making the 1st American decade in Sulu: • DatuUsap • ParukaUtik • SalipMasdal • Maharaja Untung • Jikiri • Nakib Amir
Most significant emergence of armed conflicts: -Bud Bagsak Affair in 1913 -Jikiri Threat in 1909
Bud Dajo -located in the northern series of mountain ranges.
To confront the Muslims was a relatively small contingent of American troops composed of 65 men from the 6th Infantry, 65 men from the 4th Cavalry, and 130 soldiers from the 28th Mountain Battery.
Col. Hugh W. Scott of Zamboanga Constabulary and Captain John White • were ordered to procedd to Jolo with 50 men. • Prominent leaders of Patikul that were tapped as peace emissaries: -DatuKalbi -DatuJulkanain -PanglimaBandahala
The battle began on March 5, 1906 and lasted up to the morning of March 8. • Colonel Duncan- was placed in command of the entire operation during the battle.
April 16, 1906- Wood held his last conciliatory conference with the datus and local leaders before turning over the governorship of the Moro Province to Gen. Tasker H. Bliss.
Jikiri, 1907 • Jikiri– a native of jolo began his “piratical” attacks on trading vessels or villages early in the american period but he became notorious and known to media about 1907. • 1907-he had established a staging point in cabingaan island between the jolo and siasi island groups. • Jikiri’s notoriety was based not only on the killings of victims and the carting away of anything of value but also on his obsession to get beautiful women for his booty. • Jikiri’s obsession for beautiful maidens to some psychological problems caused or heightened by ugly facial features nature had given him since birth. • After long and tendious pursuit, reliable intelligence data were gathered by julius shuck’s people on the hideout of jikiri at patian island.
(jikiri) • Jikiri was finally killed after a hand to hand combat liquidated the rest of his band. • With the death of jikiri’s, an irritating era of “piracy” came to an end and once again american rule had proven its successful campaign against recalcitrants in sulu. • 1909-marked the beginning of political change from the tasker bliss to the john pershing approach to the government or the affairs of the moro province. • Gen pershing assumed the governorship of the moro province and started a vigorous “disarmament campaign”injolo. • The result was the revival of resistance which found tangible expression in the “battle of bud bagsak”
Bud bagsak, 1913 • June 1912- loose firearms had been collected in jolo, except in lati and luuk where the opposition to disarmament was strong. • Panglimaindanan- a powerful leader was arrested and disarmed, together with his aides and sons. • This was accompanied by the violent operations of the scouts in eastern part of the jolo, especially in lati where the sabilallah attacks on american troops became the source of colonial horror. • The number of defiant rebels was about 6000 to 10000, which include 10% combatants and warriors. • It appeared that the whole lati community was defiant against american rule under circumstances where the killings of non combatants was a grim reality. • The americans authorities appealed for non combatants and combatants to return to their abondoned farms and homes.
The non combatants were persuaded to avoid conflict and only the warriors remained determined to fight the colonial forces. Part of the compromise was the withdrawal of american troops from jolo island. • American intention was not to resort to final use of arms but rather to persuade them to surrender their fire arms for the sake of peace. • American strategy was to separate the non-combatants from the combatants. When this was achieved, pershing ordered immediate troop movements to bagsak which was reached by june 11, 1913. • The bud bagsak affair ended with paxamericana dawning in sulu as over 500 rifles were gathered from the island.
DATU ALI • DATU ALI Known as Raja Buayan, he was the ruler of the Upper Valley of Cotobato and was the acknowledged leader of the Maguindanaos in the 1900s. • He led the revolt against the American government from 1903 to 1906, first fighting the enemy in open battle, and then using guerrilla warfare. • His brother Djimbagan was captured at fort Serenaya and then used as hostage to force him to surrender, but he did not yield. He continued to fight until October, when in the Battle of Simpetan, he and most of his men were killed. In another battle later that month, three of his sons were also killed.
DATU ALAMADA • DATU ALAMADA He continued Datu Ali's resistance to American rule in Cotobato after Ali's death in 1906. • With 300 men, he led attacks on American colonial forces in Buldon and Upper Cotobato, and commanded the loyal support of thousands of Muslims. • His influence was so strong that the Americans thought of hiring to destroy him. He refused to surrender to the Americans preferring to surrender to a Filipino official in 1913.
Highlander Relations • The indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of indigenous ethnic groups living in the country. They are the descendants of the original inhabitants of the Philippineswho have managed to resist centuries of Spanish and United States colonization and in the process have retained their customs and traditions.
In the 1990s, there were more than 100 highland tribal groups constituted approximately 3% of the population. The upland tribal groups were a blend in ethnic origin like other lowland Filipinos, although they did not have contact with the outside world. They displayed a variety of social organization, cultural expression and artistic skills. They showed a high degree of creativity, usually employed to embellish utilitarian objects, such as bowls, baskets, clothing, weapons and spoons. These groups ranged from various Igorot tribes, a group that includes the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Isneg, Kalinga, Kankana-ey and Tinguian, who built the Rice Terraces. They also covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integration and acculturation with lowland Christian and Muslim Filipinos. Native groups such as the Bukidnon in Mindanao, had intermarried with lowlanders for almost a century. Other groups such as the Kalinga in Luzon have remained isolated from lowland influence.
There were several indigenous groups living in the Cordillera Central of Luzon in 1990. At one time it was employed by lowland Filipinos in a pejorative sense, but in recent years it came to be used with pride by native groups in the mountain region as a positive expression of their ethnic identity. The Ifugaos of Ifugao Province, the Bontocs, Kalinga, Tinguian, the Kankana-ey and Ibaloiwere all farmers who constructed the rice terraces for many centuries. • Other mountain peoples of Luzon are the Isnegs of northern Kalinga-Apayao Province, the Gaddangs of the border between Kalinga-Apayao, and Isabela provinces and the Ilongots of Nueva Vizcaya Province and Caraballo Mountains all developed hunting and gathering, farming cultivation and headhunting. Other indigenous people such as the Negritos formerly dominated the highlands throughout the islands for thousands of years, but have been reduced to a small population, living in widely scattered locations, primarily along the eastern ranges of the mountains.
In the southern Philippines, upland and lowland tribal groups were concentrated on Mindanao and western Visayas, although there are several indigenous groups such as the Mangyan living inMindoro. Among the most important groups found on Mindanao are collectively called the Lumad, and includes the Manobo, Bukidnon of Bukidnon Province, Bagobo, Mandaya, and Mansaka, who inhabited the mountains bordering the Davao Gulf; the Subanon of upland areas in the Zamboanga; the Mamanua in the Agusan-Surigao border region; the Bila-an, Tiruray and Tboli in the region of the Cotabato province, and the Samal and Bajau in the Sulu Archipelago. The tribal groups of the Philippines are known for their carved wooden figures, baskets, weaving, pottery and weapons.
Back to traditions • The Philippines has a tremendous number and variety of customs, traditions, fragments of old beliefs, fiestas, styles of dress both among the lowland Philippine people and the many tribal groupings. Here is a list of common Filipino traditions:
Home/Structure: • Homeowner throws coins on housewarming day to bring luck. • Count the steps of the house; make sure it's not 13. This is "bilangHudas" and it's bad luck. • Make sure the master bedroom is constructed so that it faces the east or has a window facing that direction. • Open the east window in the morning to let God's grace in. • Place some coins in the foundation of the cornerstone; or keep them below the master bedroom. However, don't put them by the doorstep or wealth will go away. • Avoid doors that look like thorough fares. • * When moving into a new home, see to it that rice is brought in first. • * Have your home blessed for safety and good fortune. • * Enthrone a statue of Christ the King; Sacred Heart of Jesus, and Immaculate Heart of Mary or have the statue of the Infant Jesus in the house. Make sure they face the door to greet your guests. • * Toss coins on house warming day for good luck. • * Friends coming to a new home must enter through the front doors.
Weddings/Marriage/Childbearing: • Lovers must not give rosary or necklace to each other, if it breaks, the relationship might also get broken • * The bride or groom whose candle lasts longer will have a longer life to live. • * Bride: When the priest gives the signal "stand up or kneel down", make sure, you make the first move. This is so the husband does not completely rule over you. • * Never try on your wedding gown; it's a sign that the wedding may be cancelled. • * The Bride and groom shouldn't be traveling to distant places before the wedding; they are accident prone at this time. • "Sukobsataon" (within same calendar year) marriages among brothers and sisters must be avoided. There will always be life competitions between the two couples. • * Don't ever turn down any offer to sponsor a baptismal, confirmation or wedding. It's a blessing. • * Don't mend or hem clothes while they are on your body if you don't want to bear a child without an anus. • * If a pregnant woman's stomach is rounded, she is likely to have a girl; if it's pointed, she's likely to have a boy.
Moles & other beliefs: • A birth mark around the eye means you are appealing to guys. • * A birth mark on the chest means you are a true lover. • * If someone has a mole on the sole of the foot, it means that person loves to walk all the time. • * If someone has a mole on his back, it means that the person wants to lie around and be plain lazy. • * A mole on the eyebrows means good luck in business. • * A mole on the palm means good luck. Other Beliefs: • * Never discard dirty, old clothes; wash them first. • * Don't sweep the ground at dusk; the Virgin Mary is taking a walk and might catch the dust in her eyes. • * It's a bad luck to meet a black cat on a Friday morning. • * Breaking a mirror or glass is a bad omen. • * Having a disabled or handicapped child is your luck; caring for the child will give you more fortune. • * When you bit your lip/tongue, it means you're the subject of a conversation.
Subanun Affair 1909 • On Nov. 1, 1909, Subanuns abandoned their homes & farms to head toward Mt. Dapeok & Malindang. This is because of the “call of the two boy prophets” who told them that the end of the world is coming. • The authorities were alarmed as it might be a trick by the Moros to deprive Subanuns of their valuables and harvest. • On Nov. 28, 1909, Captain Elarth together with his troops went to Dapeok in an attempt to stop the movement. • After several talks with the leaders of the group, the troops positioned nearby to persuade the people to abandon their activities. • But the Moros and Visayans started to agitate the Subanuns which caused thousands of them to attack the troops. • 6 constabulary, 1 policeman, & 4 cargadores were killed during the fight. The troops decided to withdrew and went back to their camps to avoid another attack.
Literature of Resistance • A way or form of expressing resistance to the colonial government through literature. • Sedition Act of 1902 • A law that punishes anyone who makes any form of agitation or sedition through writing and drama plays. • Despite this Act of 1902, many writers still expressed resistance through literature. • Tagalog writers also expressed resistance through zarzuela which was a popular form of entertainment during the Spanish period. • Dramas were also effective during the American colonialism. • The literature of resistance was not only limited to dramatists and playwrights. Newsmen and journalists were also active in articulating the value of independence and the need for nationalism.
CHAPTER 16 COMPROMISE WITH COLONIALISM
COMPROMISE WITH COLONIALISM • The successful suppression of the various revolutionary outbreaks or disturbance following the formal end of the Filipino-American War.
INVOLVEMENT DURING THE MILITARY PHASE 1899-1913 • The 1899, the SchurmannComission, the first significant body created by President Mckinley, with Jacob Schurman, president of Cornell University. Initiated the non-military approach of American colonialism and succeeded.
THE CHRISTIAN FILIPINOS IN THE LOCAL LEVEL • *A notable example of this readiness of the Filipino elite to collaborate was the case of the Negritos Island. This had early witnessed as early as 1898. • *Among the Negros elite who eventually became stalwart supporters of the American rule were Juan Araneta, Jose Lazuriaga,LeondroLocsin,DemetrioLarena, and Agustin Montilla. • *November 1898, they organized theirselves into a provisional government. • *February 1899, a committee of landowners from Negros were welcomed by the military government under General E. Otis.
(THE CHRISTIAN FILIPINOS) • On March 1,1899 he created the Visayan Militarydistrict with General James F. Smith as of Governor of Negros. • *The Negrense Provincial Junta became its useful all in the American Countermeasures against the Malolos Government. • *Represented in Negros by Aguinaldo-appointed emissaries : Quintin Salas, and Zoilo Mauricio. • *And their masses led by their charismatic leader “Papa Islo” or DionesioMagbuela in real life. • Attempts oby Aguinaldo to win the elite failed and the open conflict between the colonial forces and Malolos government erupted. • The ShurmanComissionorganized municipal governements, starting in Baliwag, Bulacan. • *In February 1899, the process of pacification was focused on the local government. • *Penetration of towns by American “peace feelers and agents” • *1901 the American colonial government could disclose the pacification of the islands and the establishment of the civil government. Except in the Muslim South where civil rule would not be formed until the abolition of the military-governed Moro Province in 1913.
IN THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT • Highly Centralized Government those few occupying the top Executive, Legislative, and Judicial exercised vast powers and influence in national affairs • The involvement of the Filipino elite was represented by those who are appointed as members of Philippine Comission.
IN THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT • Philippines had a highly centralized government composed of top executive, legislative, and judicial positions. • Filipino elites like Gregorio Aranetaand Benito Legardawere appointed as members of the Phil. Commission • Cayetano Arellano, lawyer, professor of law in UST was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
WHY THE ELITE? • American gov’t appointed only the Filipino Elites to occupy the position in the gov’t because of their readiness to accept colonialism
THE CULTURAL COMMUNITIES • Americans were also successful in coopting the ruling elite at the start of American rule. In the tribal communities, American teachers and missionaries opened the path to an understanding of American benevolent policy through schools, religious missions, and especially, medical work.