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Chapter 28

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Chapter 28

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  1. Chapter 28 The West and Agricultural Revolution

  2. Indian Barrier to West • Civil war ended and country was still heading west • From Texas to Canada the line headed N. Then far west, in between nothing • 1000 mile square • By 1890 the frontier was closed

  3. 1860 360,000 • Nomadic, Spanish Horse • Whites coming from CA and from E, trapping Natives • Disease and ecological abuse will lessen the numbers • Tribes fight tribes over good land • Treaties signed to protect

  4. Fort Laramie: 1851 • Fort Atkinson:1853 • Beginning of Reservation movement • Signed by Chiefs • Indian Agents, more concerned with money then job • 1868-90 incessant warfare • Immigrants and Af/Ams made up troops • Natives better armed, trained and prepared

  5. Receding Native Population • Indians being shot on sight • Sand Creek Massacre • Chivington • 400 natives thought they had immunity • Unspeakable mutilation • Cruelty begot cruelty • Fettermen • Sioux attacked Calvary • 81 soldiers • 105 arrows in one soldiers face • Treaty of Fort Laramie: 1868 • Tried to settle prob. By abandoning Bozeman trail

  6. 1874 Custer • Black Hills Science expedition • Finds gold, many come to get rich • 7th Calvary assigned to take natives back to res. • 2500 natives surprised Custer • 264 wiped out • Little Big Horn, Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull

  7. Nez Perce • 1878 Gold in Idaho brings whites • Chief Joseph three month trek across Continent to CA • Was sup. To meet SB • Promised ancestral lands, but sent to KS40% die on Reservation • Eventually returned to Idaho

  8. Apache • Arizona and NM • Geronimo • Women exiled in FL so surrendered • Successful stock farmers in OK

  9. Reservations • Ghettoized human zoos • Not farmers • Move bcz of Railroads • Farmers, cattlemen, sheepherders • Diseases • Extermination of Buffalo

  10. Bison • 1865 15 million still roaming • RR slowed and dangerous • Cody shot 4000 himself (18 months) • Used for food for RR • Robes were fashionable, tongues just for eating • 1865 less then 1000

  11. End of the Trail • Jackson writes a Century of Dishonor 1881 • Ramona (love story of CA Natives) • Humanitarian debate sparked • Christian reformers withheld food until they converted • Outlaw certain dances: Sun and Ghost • Wounded Knee: 1890 • 200 natives killed

  12. Dawes Act 1887 • Dissolved tribes titles • Wiped out tribal ownership of land • Set up family with 160 acres • Behaved and get title and 25 years citz. • Did not happen finally citz. In 1924 • Reservation land sold • Money went to civilizing

  13. Kill the Indian save the man • Indian Boarding schools • Took individualists from Indian • By 1900 50% of land lost • Indian Reorg. Of 34 reverses • 1887 243,000 natives left • 1990 1.5 million

  14. Mining • 1859 Gold rush in CO • 59 and Pikes Peakers • Many failures: BBG • Busted by Gosh • Nevada: Comstock Lode 1864 • 340 million Kings of Comstock • Nevada: rush statehood • Crime, prostitution, liquor, needed law • Ghost town vs. Boom Town • Iron Ore: next rush • Needed big business for this

  15. Beef and the Drive • Texas had Longhorn cattle • Transcontinental made moveable, but far from railheads • Had to drive across land until refrig. Cars invented • As time went on and Sheepherders and farmers got in middle of drive led to range wars • Fences had to be incorporated • Barb wire

  16. Free land for families • Homestead act 1862 • 160 acres • Five years, need to improve it • Nominal fee $30 • Alternate: 6 months 1.25 and acre • Encourage growth and settlement • Fraud rampant

  17. Taming the Desert • RR great tamer of W • Entice immigrants to buy land • Myth of W: Prairie perfect for farming after crust broken • But only certain parts • Wheat in demand, East part good • Dry farming • Glidden Barb Wire • Dams

  18. Far West comes of age • Still some West left • Oklohoma • Sooners • Natives evicted • 1890 Frontier closed • Frederick Jackson Turner • Folding Frontier • West more then place, state of mind • Frontier was safety valve • America’s romantic image

  19. Farm becomes factory • Role of farmer changing • New crops • Single money crop • Montgomery Ward Catalogue • Farmers become specialists • Tied in with banking and RR • Larger and mechanized • Business, not just single farm • Many farmers end up working their own land

  20. Deflation Dooms Debtor • 1880 prices skidded hurt one crop farmers • Not enough dollars to go around– delflation • 1880 ¼ all famers operate as tenants • Landless in a landed country

  21. Unhappy Farmers • Lots of challenges to be farmer • Grasshoppers • Boll weevil • Floods, erosion, fertilizers • Taxes • Tariffs • In God we trusted in KS we busted • Sold stuff cheap in world market but paid top dollar at home • Coroporations and Processors take bite of farmers • Trusts, middlemen • RR: Freight rates

  22. Farmers take stand • Farmers join together • Roots in Greenback labor party • 1868 price sag: demanded inflation of paper money • National Grange of the patrons of Husbandry 1867 • Kelley head of it • Stimulate minds: Social at first • Opened to women • Cooperatives • Harvesting equipment • Politics: influence RR, Warehouses and Grain elevators

  23. State legislation • Grange had most success in states • Granger Laws: badly drawn and failed • Ran Weaver for Pres 1892 • Brought realization of problems • Farmers Alliances evolved, White and Black (N and S) • Led to development of People’s party or Populists • Worked to stop foreclosure on farms • Led by Mary E. Lease • Scared established party