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Creativity and Its Management

Creativity and Its Management

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Creativity and Its Management

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  1. Creativity and Its Management Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  2. PROBLEMSOLVING Backward Reasoning Starting point End Point ? ? ? Need: Knowledge Forward Reasoning [Edward De Bono, Lateral Thinking for Management, Penguin Books, 1990] Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  3. DESIGN Starting Point 1: ? ? ? ? End Point 2: ? ? ? ? Need: Knowledge + Creativity 3 ? ? ? ? Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  4. INNOVATION Starting Point End Point 1: ? 1:? 2:? 2: ? 3:? 3 ? 4:? Need: Knowledge + Creativity Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  5. ARRANGEMENT OF INFORMATION • Analysis • Description • Proof • Provocation • Liberation • Intermediate Impossible Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  6. PO PO Creativity Information Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  7. Basic Lateral Thinking Processes • ESCAPE from cliches and patterns • CHALLENGE assumptions • GENERATE alternatives • JUMP to new ideas and then see what happens (?) • FIND new entry points from which to move forward (?) Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  8. Logical thinking: YES/NO Lateral thinking: PO PO is an escape from YES/NO. PO introduces a discontinuity function. PO is a fantasy device PO is an insight tool. Po is a repatterning tool. PO is a-rational, not antirational. HYPOTHESIS SUPPOSE POSSIBLE POTENTIAL POETRY PO: A new functional word Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  9. Number of ideas 5 min 10 min 20 min PO Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  10. Problem: Find the size of the constriction in the tube without pulling out the tube. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  11. PO Spaghetti • Spaghettifilaments push filaments down the hole one by one until no more will pass through the constriction diameter is then given by the number of filaments used. • Spaghettifilaments use fiber optics with a camera at the end to actually photograph the constriction. • Spaghettimacaroni tube attach a small balloon to the tube and push through constriction in deflated state, then blow up balloon and try to withdraw tube determine degree of inflation which will just allow withdrawal, then measure the diameter of the tube. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  12. Creativity • The term ‘creativity’ comes from Sanskrit kar, meaning “to make, originate, to bring into existence. • Creativity is about exploring as an end in itself, being interested in the unassuming, paying attention to the strange and the weird, not intending to produce any particular result, but delighting in the process of exploration [Moore and Gillette]. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  13. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  14. “Chase, Chance and Creativity: The Lucky Art of Novelty” According to the book with the above title written in 1978 by J.H. Austin (a neurological scientist), creativity involves chance and there are four types of chances: Chance I: Pure accident through ‘blind luck’. No purposive effort. We do not know how to motivate or encourage it. Chance II: Results from action even when there is no clear goal. Kettering, the famous automotive inventor said “Keep going and the chances are you will stumble on something, perhaps when you are least expecting it. I have never heard of anyone stumbling on something sitting down.” May be applicable in certain purely empirical applied research. Lesson: Success may improve with more people employed. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  15. Some other ‘serendipitous’ products Microwave oven, Bendix brake linings, Gore-Tex, Dynamite, Puffed wheat, Dextrose-Maltose, LSD, Penicillin, Dramamine, X rays, Pulsars. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  16. Firm's Creativity Opportunities Present day knowledge and Experience Problems Normative Creativity Exploratory Creativity [Majaro 88] Flow of ideas Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  17. Serendipity “‘Serendip’ was the ancient name of Ceylon or Sri Lanka used by Horace Walpole in his fairy-tale ‘The Three Princes of Serendip’. The heroes of this book ‘were always making discoveries of things they were not in quest of’. They simply floated over the waves of destiny and allowed chance to ordain the events that directed their lives.” [Majaro 88] Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  18. Brain Jogging: Using a different approach each time, divide each of the following squares into four equal pieces Time: 2 minutes Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  19. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  20. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  21. Which of these four pictures differs from the rest? A B D C Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  22. What was special about 1961 that has not happened since 1881?[Majaro 88] Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  23. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  24. Solution to the Puzzle of Equidistant Trees • Planting one tree on the top of a hill (or in a deep hole) makes it possible to plant the other three in a circle, thus they will be equidistant from each other. The problem seems difficult to solve when one is looking for a solution in one plane. • Needs lateral thinking and flexible mind and the ability to search for solutions outside the narrow and conventional frame of reference. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  25. Solution to Historical Dates Puzzle Both 1961 and 1881 read the same if turned upside-down and are read back to front. No other dates between these two years manifest this characteristic. After 1961 the next one is in 6009a long time to wait! If you have solved this, you seem to have good lateral thinking. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  26. Ideas, like eggs, need time to hatch. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  27. The Creative Process: 5 Stages Recognizing that a problem exists and determining to tackle it First Insight Attempts to understand the problem and to produce solutions Preparation Periods of relaxation allowing subconscious though Incubation Sudden emergence of the idea (the ’act of insight’ or ‘creative leap’) Illumination Conscious development and testing of the idea into a workable solution Verification Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  28. Gutenberg was trying for years to develop the printing press. He couldn’t figure out how to take the types away from the paper without smudging till he happened to attend a wine harvest. He got the feeling of ‘Eureka!’ there. He extended the concept of wine press to printing. EUREKA! Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  29. What is intelligence? • Theories about general intelligence, have been discussed since the early 20th century. Psychologist Charles Spearman defined general intelligence in 1904 as the kind of intelligence that is used to an extent in all intellectual tasks. This type of general intelligence is supposedly what is measured by standardized tests, such as IQ tests and the SATs. • Gardner defines intelligence as the “ability to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular setting or community.” Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  30. Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory Proposed in 1983 that there is no single quotient of intelligence," but rather there are seven: • Visual / Spatial Intelligence: The ability to perceive the world accurately and to perform transformations upon one's perceptions. Highly developed in guides, interior designers, architects, artists, and inventors, • Musical Intelligence: The capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform, and express musical forms. Highly developed in musical performers, aficionados, and critics. • Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence: The capacity to use words effectively, either orally or in writing. Highly developed in story-tellers, orators, politicians, poets, playwrights, editors, and journalists. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  31. All thinking involves of logic. There are two kinds of logic. Fuzzy Depends Shades of Gray Distributed Membership Crisp Yes/No Black/White Polar 1 0 1 0 YIN YANG BUDDHA ARISTOTLE ORIENTAL OCCIDENTAL Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  32. Sees things as a whole Holistic Sees things in parts Sequential Left Right Rhythm Music Imagination Images, Color Shape recognition Day dreaming General creativity Logic Reasoning Language Numeracy Analysis Linearity Abstract [Majaro 88] Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  33. Screw Actuated Printing Press Movement along one axis Paper Ink High Pressure No rotation of platen Bottles Need to remove charge Grapes Kegs Screw actuated wine press Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press: Two intersecting pales of thought Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  34. Load the mind with pertinent information and identify the value problems Divert the mind to permit the unconscious mind to solve the problem Create an environment that stimulates the unconscious mind to deliver its solutions Later we will study a technique called VALUE ANALYSIS that helps implement the ideas we have learnt concerning creativity. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  35. Three levels at which we use our mind. 1. Conscious level: communication of literal ideas and reality. 2. Preconscious level: Data processes at an extraordinarily rapid rate with great freedom, assembling and disassembling many diverse patterns (as in a dream). 3. Unconscious level: a. Use of special competence and knowledge b. Express the needs dictated by the innermost concerns and emotions. Kostler: “ “No problem was ever solved in the conscious mind.” Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  36. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  37. Exercise Which of these types of intelligence are attempted to be ‘refined’ during school and university studies? Which are of particular value to innovators? Which are of particular value to product managers? Explain your answers. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  38. Creating Innovative Product Ideas [Takahashi, 1999] • Ideas generation may be stimulated by attempts towards • Imitation (e.g., imitating how a bird flies). • Analogy (e.g. ‘computer- hamburger’ analogy, • different modules/layers made to order.) • Combination • Transformation • Improvement • Invention • These six methods of triggering ideas can be repeated • with respect to each of the fifteen design contexts factors shown • in the next slide [Takahashi, 1999]. • Thus, the method enables at least 90 new product ideas • to be generated. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  39. The Right Way: Stage 1: Assembling Knowledge Initial Feasibility Study Market data including competition Assess company strengths and weaknesses Store Checks and Exhibitions Agreed screening criteria Group discussions with top market experts and opinion formers Screens Creative Briefing Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  40. The Right Way: Stage 2: Idea Generation Creative Briefing From enthusiasts and discussion groups From existing products From other sources Idea Making From individuals From unexploited patents From brainstorming First ideas list Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  41. Idea generation (60 ideas) Ideas recycled  The idea funneling process Idea screening  Feasibility Implementation (innovation) (1) Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  42. The Right Way: Stage 3: Screening and Presentation Screen First Ideas List Short Ideas List Product Concepts Draft technical description Visual Appearance Business rationale Test concepts with users Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  43. The Right Way: Stage 4 Development and Implementation Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  44. Generating Ideas: Brainstorming • [Alex F. Osborne, ‘Applied ImaginationPrinciples & Procedures of Creative Problem Solving’, New York, 1963, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 4th Edition.] • Osborn was a modest and unassuming person who developed a personal passion for one subject: helping people, froups and organizations to become more creative [Majaro 88]. • He said: ‘It is a little like trying to get hot and cold water out of the dame faucet at the same time: the ideas may not be hot enough, the evaluation of them not cold or objective enough. The results will be tepid.” • He suggested that the idea generation phase and idea screening phase must be de-coupled. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  45. 14. Retail System 11. Performance 13. Maintenance 7. Dimension 15. Logistics 10. Function 4. Technology 6. Structure 5. Material 2. Strategy 1. Concept 9. Finish 12. Cost 8. Form 3. Energy 1. Innovation 2. Analogy 3. Combination 4. Transformation 5. Improvement 6. Invention Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  46. Volume Place Time Increase Bigger Heavier Expand Longer Fast Shorter Slow Smaller Lighter Decrease Segmented Discontinuous Sequential Split Separate Diverse Continuous Concurrent Integrated Combine Unified All at once Forward Transform Abstract Rounded Formal Concrete Edged Separately Reverse Informal Transfer [Takahashi, 1999] Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  47. Creative Phase: Intuitive Method “Little by Little” The SIL Method [Battelle Institute, Frankfurt] • Each member of the team writes down two or • more of her/his ideas for solving a defined problem. • Two members read their proposals aloud. • All the team members try to combine these two ideas • into a new common solution concept. • Another member reads her or his own thoughts out • loud to the team and again they attempt to create • a new common solution. • This process is continued until the group has found • an acceptable solution or the process is terminated • when a given time limit has been reached. Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  48. 3D-Morphological Analysis Exploration of New Packaging Ideas Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  49. 3D-Morphological Analysis Developing a New Concept in Air Fresheners Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri

  50. 4-D Morphological Analysis New Products in the Disposable Container Business Creativity, Management of Technological Innovation, KV Patri