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Elements of a Story

Elements of a Story

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Elements of a Story

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  1. Elements of a Story Important – take notes!

  2. Characters The people, animals, or things the story is about. Protagonist – the main character; central to the story and all major events have some importance or impact on this character. Generally, this character is dynamic (changes throughout the story) and round (many sided and complex) Antagonist – the opposite of the main character; generally, works against the protagonist Minor characters – generally those characters who are static (don’t change) and flat (seem simple). These characters help the protagonist to develop and change, and achieve his/her goals.

  3. Characters Characters can be analyzed by studying the 3As: Appearance – body structure (height, weight, proportions, notable features), facial features (hair, eyes, complexion, notable features), clothing. Attitude – how the character thinks, feels, dreams, etc. These will often be character traits (intelligent, Actions – what the character does/does not do, says, and how other’s perceive or react to him/her

  4. Setting Setting is the time and location of the story. There are several aspects of the setting that you need to examine: a)Place – geographical location. b)Time – historical time, time of day, year, etc. c)Weather conditions – rainy? stormy? sunny? d)Social conditions – daily life of characters? Local colour?(speech, dress, customs of specific place) e)Mood or atmosphere – feeling created at the beginning of the story

  5. Point of View (POV)

  6. POV Point of View is the angle from which the story is told. There are 4 main POVs you must know: • First Person • Second Person • Third Person Limited • Third Person Omniscient

  7. POV First Person – The story is told by the protagonist or one of the characters who closely interacts with the protagonist. • Uses pronouns like I, me, we, etc. • The reader only knows how this character feels, and cannot read about anyone else’s thoughts or feelings

  8. POV Second person – The narrator of the story will talk to the reader, using pronouns like you, etc.

  9. POV Third Person Limited– The narrator is outside of the story (not a character), but is only able to tell us what the main character is thinking and feeling. • Uses pronouns like they, she, it, etc.

  10. POV Third Person Omniscient – The narrator is again outside the story, but the thoughts and feelings of all characters are revealed. This is one of the most common points of view.

  11. Plot Plot is the literary element that describes the order of events in a story or any other type of narrative. The most common plot structure is:

  12. Types of Linear Plots Plots can be told in Chronological Order Flashback In media res (in the middle of things) when the story starts in the middle of the action without any exposition

  13. Exposition The Exposition is the beginning of the plot, when the reader discovers the setting and characters of the story. Background information is provided. Exposition

  14. Inciting Incident The initial event that triggers the rest of the story. This is often some kind of problem that the characters must face. (Also known as conflict) Exposition Inciting incident

  15. Rising Action The events that occur after the inciting incident, and that lead to the climax. There is an increase in tension during this time. Rising Action Exposition Inciting incident

  16. Rising Action cont’d The events that occur after the inciting incident, and that lead to the climax. There is an increase in tension during this time. Rising Action Exposition Inciting incident

  17. Rising Action cont’d The events that occur after the inciting incident, and that lead to the climax. There is an increase in tension during this time. Rising Action Exposition Inciting incident

  18. Climax The highest point of tension, or the most exciting part, of the story. Climax Rising Action Exposition Inciting incident

  19. Falling Action The events that follow the climax, they generally deal with the after-effects. Climax Falling Action Rising Action Exposition Inciting incident

  20. Resolution Also referred to as the dénouement (from the French denoer which means to untie), this is the conclusion of the story. There is usually some kind of catharsis (release of dramatic tension and anxiety), and the final outcome of the conflict is revealed. Climax Falling Action Resolution Rising Action Exposition Inciting incident

  21. Conflict Conflict is the dramatic struggle between characters or the opposition that faces the main character in a story. Without conflict, there can be no story. There are two types of conflict: • Interpersonal Conflict • Internal Conflict

  22. Conflict Interpersonal conflict includes: Person vs. Person Person vs. Society

  23. Conflict Person vs. Nature Person vs. Fate Person vs. Supernatural

  24. Conflict Internal conflict includes: Person vs. Self

  25. Theme The message you want to convey throughout the entire text; it is honestly the foundation and purpose of the text.

  26. Theme cont’d For example, in Romeo and Juliet, important themes were “Love as a cause of violence” and “Fate is inevitable.”