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Enlightenment Philosophes

Enlightenment Philosophes

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Enlightenment Philosophes

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  1. Enlightenment Philosophes

  2. Thomas Hobbes • Political philosopher • English • In the natural world only the strong survive, unless order is created by a great and powerful ruler

  3. Thomas Hobbes • Wrote Leviathon in 1651 • In the beginning there was anarchy to stop violence and danger people chose a leader to rule them and created a social contract. • The Social Contract was based on the exchange of individual liberty fro group safety and social order.

  4. John Locke • Political philosopher • English • Accepted the idea of a social contract, but believed that people had only given up some of their individual rights. • People should keep the right to live, enjoy liberty, and to own property. • Rulers should protect those rights. • A ruler who violated those rights, had broken the social contract.

  5. John Locke cont. • He wrote Two Treatises of Government • He argued that individual rights were superior to laws and governments. • Governments existed to protect those rights. • So no ruler should have absolute power. • A ruler who denied people their fundamental rights was a tyrant and could be Overthrown by the people

  6. Enlightenment • 1700’s • The belief that truth can be determined solely by logical thinking was called rationalism. • The belief of natural law. • Objects in nature are expected to act in ways that were predictable. • God had created the world and all living things

  7. The role of God in the Enlightenment • To live in harmony, people must live according to natural law. • God did not interfere in human affairs • Individual actions mattered most in determining the future. • Some downplayed the importance of religion this is called secularism. They believed there should be a separation of church and the government.

  8. Philosophes • Thinkers of the Enlightenment • Not philosophers but critics of society. • The Encyclopedia- a handbook describing the ideas of the Enlightenment • Edited by Denis Diderot and Jean d’Alembert • Between 1715 and 1772 • It criticized many things in society such as the church, the government, the slave trade, torture, taxes and war. • Diderot imprisoned for The Encyclopedia

  9. Denis Diderot

  10. Political Criticism • Baron de Montesquieu • French • Adopted ideas of John Locke • Wrote The Spirit of the Laws -1748 • He described the perfect government • Great Britain had the best at the time • That government should be divided into three branches • He believed that the balance between the three branches would provide checks to political power.

  11. Baron de Montesquieu- contributed to the U.S. Consttitution

  12. Voltaire (pen name) • Francois-Marie Arouet • French • Wrote satires making fun of the French monarchy, the nobility, and the religious controls of the church. • Imprisoned twice and exiled to Britain

  13. Voltaire cont. • Freedom of Speech • He wrote, “I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” • Wrote Philosophical Letters • Also believed Great Britain had the best from of government. • Wrote Candide- where he made fun of prejudice, bigotry and oppressive governments. Also believed in Freedom of Religion

  14. Voltaire

  15. Jean Jacques Rousseau • French • Published the Social Contract • He wrote that people are born good, but that it is their environment, education and the laws of the land that corrupt them. • He believed that people needed to be able to choose their own government based on popular sovereignty. • That government must be created and controlled by the people.

  16. Jean Jacques Rousseau

  17. Mary Wollstonecraft • English • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women • She believed in equality of the sexes. • Wanted personal freedom and economic independence • Education for women so that women could be better mothers. • Women should have a say in the government.

  18. Mary Wollstonecraft

  19. CesareBeccaria • Italian • Wrote On Crimes and Punishments • Believed we needed a criminal justice system but that it should have nor torture or cruel and unfair punishments or fines.

  20. Enlightened Despotism • This is a government where an absolute monarch would govern, but according to the principles of the enlightenment • There must be government AND individual freedom

  21. Quiz: • 1.The 17th century is known as the Age of Enlightenment. T/F • 2.Natural law means that objects in nature act in predictable ways. T/F • 3. The Encyclopedia was a history of France. T/F • 4. Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that people are naturally corrupt. T/F • 5. Popular sovereignty is when a monarch is liked. T/F