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Global Health 101

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  1. Global Health 101 Deepti Thomas- Paulose MD, MPH July 14th 2011

  2. WHO Definition of Health “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”

  3. Outline • Define Public Health and International Public health • Define major principles • Understand major issues in global public health • History of Global Health • Current Challenges • Future Challenges

  4. Public health • The science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community through: • Preventative medicine • Health education • Control of communicable diseases • Application of sanitary measures • Monitoring of environmental health hazards

  5. John Snow- The father of modern public health • Cholera outbreak in London during 1848-1848 • Different water sources were the basis for illness • “The Ghost Map”

  6. Multitude of sciences • Epidemiology and Biostatistics • Biological sciences concerned with humans, microorganisms and vectors • Social and behavioral sciences-economics, psychology, anthropology and sociology

  7. Social Justice • Central pillar of public health • Equity in health to all groups in any society • Impeded by differences in gender, social class, ethnicity, and race

  8. International Public Health • Application of principles of public health to health challenges that affect low and middle-income countries and to the complex array of global and local forces that influence them including: • Urbanization • Migration • Information technology • Expanding global markets

  9. Improving health requires understanding characteristics: • Social • Cultural • Behavioral • Economic • Environmental

  10. What are the issues you should understand in International Public Health?

  11. 1)Main causes of Morbidity and Mortality in the world today and in the future in view of : • The demographic transition- many countries are transitioning from high to low fertility rates

  12. 2)The cultural diversity of population groups within countries and regions Values, belief systems and responses to illness and death

  13. 3)The causes and consequences of human population growth and the beneficial effects for women and children of reproductive health programs.

  14. 4) The complex relationship between nutritional status and disease patterns, including the importance of micronutrient deficiencies.

  15. 5)The main infectious agents and vectors responsible for communicable diseases

  16. 6) The increasing rates of non-communicable or chronic diseases.

  17. 7) The increasing burden of mortality and morbidity attributable to non- intentional and intentional injuries.

  18. 8) The various approaches to the design, financing, organization, and management of preventative and curative services in countries with diverse economies and resources

  19. 9) The appropriate responses to complex humanitarian emergencies, especially those involving large displacements of populations within a country and between neighboring countries

  20. 10) The importance of health for the economic development of a nation and the productivity of its population, and the reciprocal impact of development, as reflected by such factors as educational levels and economic growth, on health status

  21. 11) The roles of national, regional, international and intergovernmental development agencies, as well as non-governmental and private volunteer agencies in delivery of preventive and care services

  22. A Summarized History of International Public Health

  23. 400 BC • Hippocrates presents causal relation between environment and disease

  24. Romans introduce public sanitation and organized water supply system 1st Century AD

  25. Black Death leads to quarantine and cordon sanitaire 14th century

  26. Middle Ages • Colonial expansion spreads infectious diseases around the world • Many cities in Europe build hospitals and other institutions to provide medical care and social assistance

  27. 1750-1850 (Age of Enlightenment) • Industrial revolution results in extensive health and social improvements in cities in Europe and the US • Outbreaks of cholera and other epidemic diseases that resulted in high rates of child mortality

  28. 1850-1910 • Great expansion in the knowledge about the causes and transmission of communicable diseases • Louis Pasteur’s proof of germ theory • Robert Koch’s discovery of tubercle bacillus • Walter Reed’s demonstration of the role of the mosquito in transmitting yellow fever

  29. 1850-1910 • Discoveries in the sciences of physiology, metabolism, endocrinology, and nutrition • Dramatic decreases in child and adult mortality through improvements in social and economic conditions, discovery of vaccines and implementation of programs in health education

  30. 1910-1945 • Reductions in child mortality • Establishment of schools of public health and international foundations and intergovernmental agencies interested in public health • League of Nations

  31. 1945-1990 • End of WWII beginning of current era of international public health • Creation of World bank, IMF and other UN agencies; WHO eradicates smallpox; HIV/AIDS pandemic begins; Alma Ata Conference gives emphasis to primary health care; UNICEF leads efforts for universal childhood immunization; greater attention to chronic diseases

  32. Switch in paradigm from control of specific diseases to strengthening the capacities of low and middle income countries to extend their health services to populations with poor access to prevention and care Alma-Ata Conference in 1978

  33. 1990-present • Priority given to health sector reform, equity, health and development, impact of and responses to globalization, cost-effectiveness, public-private partnerships in health, and use of information and communications technologies

  34. Ottawa Charter of 1986 • Health as a resource for development not merely as an outcome • Importance of structural factors that affect health on a societal level • Shift from “risk behavior to “risk environment” • Prerequisites for health • Peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice and equity

  35. The success of global health • Life expectancy is around 80 in many countries around the world • Life expectancy in developing countries has climbed to about 65 from 41 in the early 1950s • Elimination of smallpox (certified in 1979) • Almost elimination of polio and measles • Decline in global child mortality from 192 (1950s) to 79 per 1000 live births by 2004 • Immunization coverage approximately 75-80% worldwide.

  36. Current Challenges in International Public Health

  37. Nearly 11 milllion children below age 5 die each year from preventable causes such as • Pneumonia • Diarrhea • Malaria • Malnutrition • Measles • HIV/AIDS 98 % of these deaths occur in developing countries

  38. More than 120 million women want to space or limit childbearing, but do not have access to modern contraceptives

  39. Nearly 600,000 women die annually from complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and another 30 million suffer pregnancy related health problems that can be permanently disabling

  40. Each year 13 million persons die from infectious diseases, most of which are preventable or curable; half of these deaths are in adults and are due to TB, malaria, or HIV/AIDS

  41. Worldwide 1.2 billion people do not have access to clean water

  42. More than 300 million adults are obese, putting them at significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, HTN, cancer, stroke and musculoskeletal disorders

  43. There is a broad consensus that poverty is the most important underlying cause of preventable death, disease and disability More people live in poverty today than 20 years ago

  44. Literacy, access to housing, safe water, sanitation, food supplies and urbanization are determinants of health status that interact with poverty

  45. Globalization • Economic globalization, driven by increasing world trade, greater openness of national economies to world markets and the vast expansion of information technology, has contributed to uneven economic growth, increased economic inequality, and concerns about subordination of human and labor rights

  46. Millennium Declaration by the UN in September 2000 • Address inequities that have been created or worsened by globalization • Form new international linkages to achieve and protect peace, disarmament, poverty eradication, gender equality, the environment, human rights, and good governance • The goals dealing specifically development and poverty eradication have become known as the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), three of which explicity refer to health

  47. Millennium Development Goals by 2015 • MDG 4 - Reduce under 5 mortality by two-thirds • MDG 5 - Reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters • MDG 6 - Reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and other major diseases

  48. Future Public Health Challenges • Emergence and reemergence of infectious disease- MDTB, SARS, influenza, West Nile Virus, etc • Dual burden in low and middle income countries of communicable and non-communicable diseases • Global forces that have imported Western lifestyles such as tobacco smoking and increased consumption of processed foods have hastened the increase of chronic diseases in these countries