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  1. HOMEWORK Complete an FRQ on the question: To what extent did Western Expansion contribute to sectional tensions in the antebellum period (1800 – 1850). You should remember to write on white-lined paper and time yourself; no more than 35 minutes. Chapter 19 notes due Wednesday; 20 due Friday.

  2. Harkness feedback • The good: • Evidence-based • Some good exchanges, both helping to fill in the blank and challenging with different viewpoints • Analysis, but not in the service of answering questions • The bad: • Dominated by a few voices • Although broad participation, many who participated late did so just to get in and did not use evidence to support their claims • The ugly: • Failure to address and answer questions, stick to the script

  3. Compromise of 1850

  4. Turn & Talk, Write How did the California gold rush result in inflaming strong sectional disputes?

  5. Compromise Of 1850California • Gold discovered in 1849, mass exodus to California begins. • Numerous immigrants, including Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese. • Whites, already worried about the Asians, Native Americans, and Mexicans, do not want more competition for post-Gold Rush jobs. • California would push for statehood, bypassing the usual status as a territory. • Wants to enter as a free state. Poster For Passage To California, 1849

  6. Compromise Of 1850California • Congress has a problem. • 15 slave states, 15 free states, and the North holds a House majority of 61 votes. • Half of California rests below 36° 30´. Free & Slave States in 1846

  7. Turn & Talk, Write Who supported and who opposed the Compromise of 1850, what were its main provisions, and how did it pass?

  8. Compromise Of 1850Last Stand of Clay, Calhoun, Webster • The old sectional leaders square off one last time. • Clay would die in 1850, Calhoun and Webster in 1852. • All have basically the same goals: preserve the union without weakening the position of their individual regions. • Debates rage as the three try to keep the union together. Clay, Douglas, & The Fugitive Slave Act Within The Compromise of 1850

  9. Compromise Of 1850The Proposal • California is to be admitted as a free state. • The rest of the Southwest is to be organized without mention of slavery. • Both sides see it as an opportunity for the future. • Compromise was written with the “charm of ambiguity.” • Texas-New Mexico border dispute is ended. California Gold Miners

  10. Compromise Of 1850The Proposal Map Of U.S. After Compromise Of 1850

  11. Compromise Of 1850The Proposal • The federal government would assume Texan debt built up during its time of independence. • Continue to allow slavery in Washington, D.C., but ends slave trading in the area. • A new Fugitive Slave Act is to be set. Slave Auction

  12. Turn & Talk, Write Is there a significant difference in the leadership of Old Guard senators such as Clay, Webster, and Calhoun when compared with the Young Guard of Douglas and Seward?

  13. Compromise Of 1850New Sectional Leaders Emerge: North Stephen Douglas: “The Little Giant” William H. Seward Charles Sumner

  14. Compromise Of 1850New Sectional Leaders Emerge: South Thomas Hart Benton Jefferson Davis Robert Toombs

  15. Compromise Of 1850Opposition & Acceptance • Clay and Calhoun support the compromise wholeheartedly. • Webster, expected to resist, surprises Congress by delivering one of the greatest speeches in support of the compromise. • Webster sees it as the best chance at preserving the Union. • Webster is denounced by antislavery supporters in the North. Clay’s Speech In Support Of The Compromise Of 1850

  16. Compromise Of 1850Opposition & Acceptance • Taylor opposes the compromise. • Despite owning slaves, sees the expansion of slavery as wrong. • July 4, 1850, attends a celebration, eats too much, and dies of gastroenteritis. • Millard Fillmore takes over. • Anything to preserve the Union. 13th POTUS Millard Fillmore

  17. Compromise Of 1850Opposition & Acceptance • Compromise would be pushed through Congress by Stephen Douglas. • Very much like Clay in 1820, would be able to get each section to pass it individually. • Only way to get the compromise passed was to introduce each aspect as a separate measure to obtain different majorities. Stephen Douglas

  18. Turn & Talk, Write Why did the North so strongly resent the Fugitive Slave Law and why did the South resent northern resistance to it?

  19. Compromise Of 1850Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 • “Bloodhound Bill” allows the South to recover slaves from the North. • Becomes a rallying point for the North, who oppose Southern state laws extending into the North. • South believes that the North is not complying with the law. • Bitter feud erupts between individuals in the Senate and the House. 1851 Flier Warning Blacks Of The Fugitive Slave Law

  20. Turn & Talk, Write Did the North, South, or West benefit most from the Compromise of 1850? Why?

  21. Compromise Of 1850Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 • Northerners resist, including many African-American leaders. • MA makes it penal offense for any state official to enforce • Step toward nullification • “personal liberty laws” denied fed officials jails, hampered enforcement • Frederick Douglass, usually mild-mannered, stated that the only way to make the fugitive slave law a “dead letter…was to make a few dead slave catchers.” • Significance: turned moderates into radicals Frederick Douglass

  22. Processing • Was the Compromise of 1850 a wise effort to balance sectional differences or a futile effort to push the slavery issue out of sight?

  23. HOMEWORK Complete an FRQ on the question: To what extent did Western Expansion contribute to sectional tensions in the antebellum period (1800 – 1850). You should remember to write on white-lined paper and time yourself; no more than 35 minutes. Chapter 19 notes due Wednesday; 20 due Friday.