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UCSD EH&S

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UCSD EH&S

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Presentation Transcript

  1. UCSDEH&S Laser Safety

  2. Topics • Laser Safety Program / Responsibilities • Laser classifications and light properties • Engineering controls / administrative controls • Laser exposures / biological effects

  3. Laser Safety Program • American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1) • Cal OSHA • Laser Safety Information • http://blink.ucsd.edu/go/lasersafety

  4. PI Responsibility • Principal Investigator • Overall Responsibility • Ensure Safety • Ensure Compliance • Notify EH&S as necessary

  5. General Users Responsibility • Attend training • Wear proper protective equipment • Follow laser standard operating procedures • Ensure all laser engineering and administrative controls are in place • Ensure room security to laser area • Notify EH&S as necessary

  6. Laser Use Authorization (LUA)

  7. Laser Use Authorization (LUA)

  8. DocumentationLUA Amendment

  9. DocumentationLUA Amendment • http://blink.ucsd.edu/go/lasersafety • Laser Use Authorization Application(LUA) • Laser User Enrollment Form • Laser Equipment Registration Form • Standard Operating Procedure Template • LUA Amendment

  10. Audits • Annual audits • Engineering controls • Administrative controls • Personal protective equipment • Training • Follow up on previous violations • LUA annual renewal

  11. Laser Classifications • Four laser classes • Class 1, 2, 3a, 3B, and 4 • Classifications are based on the laser’s capability of injuring personnel. • Classified according to its accessible laser radiation during operation. • Worldwide classification scheme • Class 1M, 2M, and 3R

  12. Laser Classifications • Class 1 &1M • Incapable of causing injury, unless viewed with optical instrument (eye-loupe/telescope) • Exempt from control measures other than to prevent optically aided viewing.

  13. Laser Classifications • Class 2 & 2M • Visible spectrum (400-700nm) • Not exceeding accessible power of 1mW • Human aversion response, 0.25 second • Not safe for viewing more than 0.25 second • Potentially hazardous if viewed with certain optical aids.

  14. Laser Classifications • Class 3R formerly 3a • Between 1 - 5mW • Visible or invisible

  15. Laser Classifications • Class 3B • Direct beam hazard and specular reflection hazard • Operates at any wavelength • Max average power of 500mW

  16. Laser Classifications • Class 4 • All hazards of class 3B • Diffuse reflection hazard • Fire hazard • Average power exceeds 500mW

  17. Laser Light Properties • Monochromatic • Directional • Coherent • The combination of these three properties allows laser light to be focused 100 times better than ordinary light.

  18. Beam Types • Continuous (CW) • Constant power • Higher average power • Pulsed • High peak power • Generally more hazardous

  19. Beam Types

  20. Control Measures • Control measures • Engineering • Administrative • Personal Protective Equipment

  21. Engineering Controls • Engineering control • Laser Curtain • Beam enclosures • Beam blocks • Interlocks • Beam Blocks • Durability • Reflectivity • Combustibility • Optical density • What effect will the wavelength have on the material?

  22. Engineering Controls

  23. Engineering Controls

  24. Engineering Controls

  25. Engineering Controls

  26. Engineering Controls

  27. Engineering Controls

  28. Fiber Optic • Fiber optics used to transmit class3B and 4 laser should be treated as a laser of that power • Cap off fiber when not in use • Do not look at fiber end while laser is on • Cutting and trimming strands • Glass/plastic fragments • Chemical cleaners • Wear gloves/safety glasses • Work in well ventilate area

  29. Administrative Controls • General Laser Safety Training • System Specific Laser Safety Training • Laser Warning Signs • Emergency Procedures • Standard Operating Procedures

  30. Administrative Controls • Warning signs • Design specific to ANSI standards • Type of laser • Power output • Wavelength

  31. Administrative Controls • Emergency Procedures • Posted inside the laser controlled area • Emergency numbers for laser injuries • Incident reporting

  32. Administrative Controls • Standard operating procedures (SOP) • Required for class 4 lasers • Beam alignment • Laser controlled area • Non-beam hazards • Laser maintenance • Training requirements • Emergency procedures • Additional safety measures • Signatures

  33. Laser Eyewear • Optical density • Visible light transmission • Wavelength • Exposure time • Comfort and fit • Femtoseconds rated goggles

  34. Laser Eyewear

  35. Laser Eyewear

  36. Laser Eyewear • If you have a laser operating at 633nm with an optical density requirement of 1.5. What is the best optical density? • OD = 1 at 633nm and 4 at 400nm • OD = 2 at 633nm and 5 at 190-380nm • OD = 2 at 633nm and 4 at 400-550nm

  37. Laser Eyewear • Most critical for laser hazards • The lens concentrates light up to 100,000 times at 400-1400 nm • If irradiance entering the eye is 1 mW/cm2 the irradiance at the retina will be 100 W/cm2

  38. Ancillary Hazards • Ancillary hazards • Electrical • Fire • Compressed gases • Laser dye and solvents • Laser Generated Air Contaminants (LGAC) • Trip hazards

  39. Laser Exposures

  40. MPE / NHZ • MPE (maximum permissible exposure) - The level of laser radiation to which a person may be exposed to without adverse biological effects in the eye or skin. • NHZ (nominal hazard zone) – The distance which the level of direct, reflected or diffuse laser radiation exceeds the MPE.

  41. MPE • Wavelength • Power / Energy of laser • Exposure duration • HeNe laser • 10mW at 633nm • Exposure time = 0.25 Sec • MPE = 2.55E-3 W/cm2 • Irradiance at eye = 2.60E-2 W/cm2 • 10.20 time the MPE • Intrabeam NHZ = 30 meters

  42. Alignment Not using laser eyewear or wearing improper eyewear for the wavelength being used Inadequate training of laser personnel Stray reflections off badges, jewelry… Failure to follow approved standard operating procedures Failure to contain laser beams Taking short cuts, rushing the job, fatigue, illness… Laser Exposures

  43. Hazardous acts – beam alignment Failure to wear eye protection Wearing inappropriate eyewear Wearing watches, rings…during alignment Elevating (vertical) beams Stray beams Using high power beam Laser Exposures

  44. Laser Accident • Turn off the laser • Inform PI and EH&S • UCSD employee contact Occupational Medicine Clinic 858-657-1600 • Students contact Student Health Service 858 -534-3300 • Not sure of employment status 858-534-2454 • File an incident report • Do not modify the laser system

  45. Biological Effects

  46. Biological Effects • Commercial sun block is designed for UV that penetrates the ozone layer. • Common wavelength that can penetrate sun block • 157, 193, 254, 266 nm

  47. Biological Effects

  48. Biological Effects

  49. Biological Effects • Most hazardous retinal region. • Invisible • Eyes do not react to invisible spectrum • Energy still deposits onto the retina • Most common is the Nd:YAG at 1064nm

  50. Biological Effects