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MBA 500 Workshop 2 PowerPoint Presentation
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MBA 500 Workshop 2

MBA 500 Workshop 2

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MBA 500 Workshop 2

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  1. MBA 500 Workshop 2 Foundations of Problem-Based Learning Joseph Lewis Aguirre

  2. WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies • Define the value of the MBA. • University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s • Value of critical thinking in decision making. • UOP Library. • APA method for scholastic writing. • Center for Writing Excellence. • Plagiarism Checker. • Collaborative learning.

  3. WS2-1: Key Concepts in Decision Making • Justify the use of decision-making models. • Analyze the elements of decision-making models. • Perform a situation analysis. • Differentiate between symptoms and problems. • Develop alternative solutions. • Evaluate alternative solutions. • Describe how personal, cultural, and organizational values impact ethical decision-making. • Select the best possible solution.

  4. WS2-1: Reflective Decision Making • Reflection as specialized problem solving tool. • Informed process of inquiry that leads to a goal, conclusion or solution. • Dynamic process using multiple sources of information • Reflective decision-making means that decisions are well informed by experience and knowledge • One hallmark of a professional is reflection

  5. WS2-1: Expedient Decision Making • Expedient and rapid response are required. • Fast paced change. • The problem is poorly structured. • The factors and rules are hard to articulate in an unambiguous way. • Ambiguous, incomplete, or conflicting information. • There is no precedent

  6. WS2-1: Key Concepts in Decision Making

  7. Problem Solving Any problem can be viewed as a system that we are attempting to analyze and develop an equivalent to: Input Output Black Box

  8. Problem Solving using Models A model is an abstract representation of reality Present State Goal State

  9. Problem Solving using Models We can view a problem using a model Present State Goal State

  10. Problem Solving Intelligence Problem Space Problem Space Design Choice

  11. Decision Making: Design Modeling Criteria Alternatives

  12. Decision Making: Choice Search appropriate action - Blind - Heuristic

  13. Decision Making: Evaluation Multiple Goals Sensitivity Analysis What-If Goal Seeking

  14. Problem Solving Intelligence Problem Space Problem Space Design Choice

  15. Decision Making Process Intelligent Phase Objectives Problem statement Data Collection Design Phase Modeling Criteria Alternatives Choice Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation Implementation

  16. Intelligent Phase Objectives Problem statement Data Collection Design Phase Modeling Criteria Alternatives Choice Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation Implementation Problem Solving Making the decision 4.Identify causes 5.Alternatives 6.Impact of alternatives 7. Make decision Evaluation 8. Measure impact 9. Implementation Framing the Problem 1.Identify the problem 2.Define criteria, goals 3.Evaluate effect of the problem

  17. No Customary Assumptions, Habits New Assumptions, Habits Yes Question Critical Thinking Process Developing Person Relationship Work Political

  18. Problem Solving Intelligence Problem Space Problem Space Design Choice

  19. WS2-2: Negotiations • Evaluate the complexities of negotiations. • Describe basic contract law for negotiators. • Describe basic agency law for negotiators.

  20. WS2-2: Negotiations

  21. Critical Thinking “reacting with systematic evaluation to what you have heard and read”(Browne, Keeley, McCall, Jr., Kaplan, 2001, p. 3). “Active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds which support it and the further conclusions to which it tends”. (Dewey, 1909, p. 9): John Dewey, American philosopher, psychologist and educator

  22. Critical Thinking Characteristics • CT is productive and positive activity • A process, not an outcome • Manifestation is a function of the context • Triggered by positive and negative events • Emotive as well as rational • Skeptical of quick fix solutions • Open to alternative solutions • Politically: value freedom, encourage tolerance and diversity, hold in check demagogic tendencies of politicians • Foundation in formal and informal logic • Ability to see relevant answers even if they do not coincide with pre-existing belief

  23. Critical Thinking Elements • Perception. • Assumption. • Emotion. • Language. • Argument. • Fallacy. • Logic. • Problem solving.

  24. Critical Thinking Process One who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; one who does not ask a question remains a fool forever. Chinese proverb

  25. Decision Making Framework Information Characteristics Decision Structure Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus Business Professionals Operational Management Efficient, do thing right Structured Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope Semi Structured Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation Un Structured RELATIVE TIME SPAN

  26. Values Ecology Cutting Edge Image Fun Growth Family Capital Quality Social Capital Location Hedonism Risk Collaboration Centralization Creativity Other Honesty Customers Employees Safety Competitors Revenue Profits Alliances New Products New Markets

  27. Organizational Effectiveness ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE Other Teams Marketplace Enthusiasm STRUCTURE Competition Accountability Reward System GOALS Reporting Relationships Values Clarity Commitment Collaboration Mission Philosophy Stress Feedback System Decision Making Behavior Norm Flexibility Trust Competition Culture Involvement Pressures

  28. Forces of Influence Conventional view: Violence is a result of environment Neuroscience report: Violence is a function of abnormal brain activity caused by brain damage. Christian view: Violence is a result of (original) sin in people.

  29. Forces of Influence • Broad • Physiology, psychology, sociology • Narrow • Gender, age, birth, order, culture, education, economic status, religion, etc.

  30. Forces of Influence • We distort the way we perceive the world • We differ in our views of reality • We can make hurdles instead of walls

  31. Decision Structure Structure Non- collaborative Collaborative Weighted Committee Individual Consensus Majority Weighted Consensus Majority

  32. Decision Making Drivers Decision Making Drivers at Work: Decision Making Drivers at Large : Technology Complexity Competition Globalization Environmental/Regulatory Change

  33. DECISION SUPPORT DRIVERS • Speed, Timeliness • Accuracy • Cost Reduction • Increased Productivity • Technical Support • Quality Support • Competitive Tool • Overcome Cognitive Limits in Processing and Storage

  34. Education and Values Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make man a more clever devil. C. S. Lewis

  35. WHERE DO I WANT TO GO TODAY? "Cheshire-Puss," she began, rather timidly, "Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?" "That depends a great deal on where you want to get to," said the cat. "I don't much care where -," said Alice. "Then it doesn't matter which way you go," said the cat. --Lewis Carroll Alice in Wonderland -

  36. Creating a New System “It must be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, more dangerous to manage, than the creation of a new system. For the initiator has the enmity of all who would profit by the preservation of the old institutions and merely lukewarm defenders in those who would gain by the new ones. —NiccoloMachiavelli

  37. Decision Making Framework GOALS OPPORTUNITIES PROBLEMS OBJECTIVES EVALUATION IMPLEMENTATION OPTIONS RELATIVE TIME SPAN

  38. Decision Making Framework Information Characteristics Decision Structure Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus Business Professionals Operational Management Efficient, do thing right Structured Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope Semi Structured Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation Un Structured RELATIVE TIME SPAN

  39. "Despite the existence of more and better information than ever before, time pressure prevents decision makers from gathering all that they need and from sharing it," -- Peter Tobia, author, "Decision Making in the Digital Age: Challenges and Responses," Information Age Paradox

  40. Planning, Tools and Descriptions It is not the plan that matters, It’s the planning. -General Dwight D. Eisenhower Graphical Diagrams do not constitute a specification….nothing replaces clear, concise text. - David A. Ruble

  41. Planning, Tools and Descriptions At a recent study, I commented at one point in our deliberations that we had spent more time on wordsmithing than we had on considering the substance of our report. -- Robert W. Lucky, VP for Applied Research at Telecordia. NJ It seems to me language by its very nature is imprecise. I think of each word as inhabiting a fuzzy ball of uncertain semantic meaning…. – Robert W. Lucky

  42. Decisions My BASIC principle is that you don't make decisions because they are easy; you don't make them because they are cheap; you don't make them because they're popular; you make them because they're right -- Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C. Former President of Notre Dame

  43. Individual Vs Collective Intelligence No one in this world, so far as I know, has ever lost money by underestimating the intelligence of the great masses of the plain people -H. L. Mencken Large groups of people are smarter than an elite few, no matter how brilliant—better at solving problems, fostering innovation, coming to wise decisions, even predicting the future. -James Surowiecki

  44. Decision Making Preconditions 1. There must be an awareness of the existence of a gap 2. There must be a perceived need to solve the problem 3. There must be some way to measure the size of the gap 4. The skills and resources needed to solve the problem must be present or at least easily obtainable

  45. Decision Strategies Optimization Satisficing Elimination by aspects – eliminate all alternatives that fail with respect to a particular aspect

  46. Decision Strategies Instrumentalism – muddling through – compare alternative courses of action to the current one Mixed scanning – search for, collection, processing, evaluating and weighing of information. The importance of the decision determines the degree of scanning Analytical Hierarchical Process

  47. Management Roles Mintzberg’s 10 Management Roles: Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator

  48. Decision Structure Structure Non- collaborative Collaborative Weighted Committee Individual Consensus Majority Weighted Consensus Majority

  49. Decision Making Process Implementation Decision Maker Problem Definition Stimulus

  50. Decision Making Process Intelligent Phase Objectives Problem statement Data Collection Design Phase Modeling Criteria Alternatives Choice Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation Implementation