Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of persuasion began in Greece.
Meet Aristotle Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion. Plato, another famous Greek philosopher, was his teacher.
Translated from Greek, the word “philosopher” means one who loves wisdom.
In approximately 300 B.C.E., Aristotle, wrote a book entitled, TheArt of Rhetoric. In his book, Aristotle identified the three methods of persuasion: PATHOS, LOGOS, ETHOS The Art of Rhetoric Plato Aristotle
Pathos, Logos, Ethos • PATHOS = pity • appeal to emotion/sex appeal/senses • “awwh” factor • appeal to memory or common experience • poetic persuasion (figurative language) • LOGOS = logic • facts • reason • rationales (if…then…) • ETHOS = ethics • credibility/trustworthy • authority/superiority in society or subject • doctors, judges, celebrities
Pathos = pity (emotion) Pathos: related to the words pathetic, sympathy, and empathy Accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim May persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy Pathos
Pathos is the use of emotional appeal. Pathos, cont’d.
Logos = logic An “if…then…” argument Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect. The audience relies on reasoning and facts to make its decision. Numbers, polls and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic. Logos
Ethos • Ethos = Ethics • Refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. • The speaker must establish moral credibility and expertise in his or her field in the minds of the audience When a judge comments on legal precedent, audiences tend to listen because it is the job of a judge to know the nature of past legal cases.
Persuasion in Advertising • Review each of the following advertisements. • Each one uses persuasion to sell a product or idea. • Review each ad and determine which type of persuasion is being used.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? #1 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? #2 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
#3 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? #4 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
#5 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
#6 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? #7 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? #8 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? #9 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? #10 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Ethos, Pathos, Logos? #11 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos? #12 Pathos, logos, or ethos?
Using Pathos, Logos and Ethos in a Persuasive Essay • In a good persuasive essay, all three types of persuasion should be employed. • Begin with ethos (ethics) to provide reasons and connect with your audience. • Next, employ logos (logic) and make your pointwith evidence and logic. • Finally, end with pathos (appeal to emotions) to get your reader on your side.
TOPIC: Should we pursue the development of alternative “fuels” to run our vehiclesPosition: Disagree – We should NOT use other “fuels”
Pathos—Writing Sample • The changing of fuel types will cause an increase in the cost of shipping food, which will directly impact the overall health of our nation. Because many people in our country live on a fixed income or below the poverty level, the extra cost for food will be a burden for them. Many elderly people may simply starve to death because they cannot afford to buy groceries. Despite the fact that the United States is one of the richest countries in the world, the rising cost of food means some children will be denied healthy food choices. Poor families will resort to cheaper fast food which will cause health issues in young children.
Logos—Writing Sample • It would be extremely costly to change from gas fueled vehicles to other forms or means of fuel. Gas stations would have to change the pump systems that are used now to a new pump system that would be costly to the gas station owners. This would raise the price of another form of fuel because the consumer will have to absorb the difference in cost.The car industry would have to create different types of gas tanks and fuel systems for vehicles and prices on cars would increase. Another fuel system would create problems for people who own cars that are fueled by gas. We would have to phase in the new cars with the new fuel systems and this would also be costly to the consumer.
Ethos—Writing Sample • Our economy is pretty fragile now. The vehicle manufacturers like Ford have had to close factories. This affects. People’s ability to spend money which means less spending money coming back into the economy. Stores have to lay-off workers and reduce the amount of products they make. The DOWgoes down which means the dollar does not have the same value as itdid before and other countries will not trade with us. Why areAmerican soldiers fighting for us in Iraq and losing their lives for us if we turn to another form of fuel?