CESA #11Leading for DifferentiationApril 6, 2010 Moving reluctant or skeptical faculty toward differentiation email@example.com Elk River Public Schools ISD 728
How is a paradigm formed? Debono
A group of scientists placed 5 monkeys in a cage and placed a ladder with bananas on it in the middle of the room.
Every time a monkey went up the ladder, the scientists soaked the rest of the monkeys with cold water.
After a while, every time a monkey went up the ladder, the others beat him up when he came down.
After some time, no monkey dared to go up the ladder, regardless of the temptation.
Scientists then decided to substitute one of the monkeys with one unexposed to the experiment. The first thing the new monkey did was go up the ladder to get the bananas. Immediately the other monkeys beat him up. After several beatings, the new member learned not to climb the ladder even though he never knew why.
A 2nd monkey was substituted and the same occurred. The 1st monkey participated in the beating of the 2nd monkey. A 3rd monkey was changed and the beating was repeated. The 4th was substituted and the beating was repeated and finally the 5th monkey was replaced.
What was left was a group of 5 monkeys that had never received a cold shower, but continued to beat up any monkey who attempted to climb the ladder.
If it was possible to ask the monkeys why they would beat up all those who attempted to go up the ladder….. I bet you the answer would be…. “I don’t know – that’s how things are done around here” Does it sounds familiar?
Session Topics • Moving through an instructional sequence • Illegitimate & Legitimate teacher concerns • Addressing Indifference, resistance, and sabotage • What teachers need • How administrators can help • A differentiated in-service approach
Differentiated Lesson Jill Rollie
Seventh grade honors language arts class 28 students Exceed or meet on the sixth grade MCA II Scantron Scaled Score range 3391 -2744 Wide range of socioeconomic status
Starts with intentionally Rigorous curriculum William and Mary Curriculum – enrichment Independent novel studies Reading, literature, writing, language
1. The student will identify and analyze the effect of characters’ traits on the plot and resolution of the conflict in one of three ways: a graph, oral presentation, or an *essay/chart. *Relate a given literary work to historical events (place, time and custom). 2. Identify and analyze the relationships among elements of fiction and setting in one of three ways: chart/venn diagram, descriptive writing, or a travel brochure. 3. Identify and analyze the relationships among elements of fiction and theme in one of three ways: music, chart, or essay. *Respond to literature using ideas and details from the text to support reactions and make literary connections.
KUDOs for The Giver The student will know: • The terms associated with literary fiction • The history of utopian fiction • The biography of Lois Lowry Understand that: • Fiction can influence societies and cultures • Fiction is interpreted in different ways by different people
KUDOs for The Giver Thestudent will be able to: Apply the themes of a literary work to his or her own life Relate a given literary work to historical events (place, time and custom) Respond to literature using ideas and details from the text to support reactions and make literary connections. Identify and analyze the effect of characters’ traits on the plot and resolution of the conflict in one of three ways: a graph, oral presentation, or an essay/chart. Identify and analyze the relationships among elements of fiction and setting in one of three ways: chart/venn diagram, descriptive writing, or a travel brochure. Identify and analyze the relationships among elements of fiction and theme in one of three ways: music, chart, or essay.
Essential ?’s for The Giver • What is the relationship between freedom and happiness? • Whose needs come first – the individual’s or societies’? How are these needs balanced? • When is coercion justified? • Can equality be legislated? Is so, should it be?
This would not be graded! Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ____________Write as much as you can. Utopia Lois Lowry The Giver Ways to reveal character Elements of plot Tomlinson - 02
Knowledge Rating Chart An example of pre-assessment of readiness • I’ve never heard of this before • I’ve heard of this, but am not sure how it works • I know about this and how to use it _____ Plot _____ Symbolism _____ Irony _____ Theme _____ Setting _____ Character _____ Voice
Pre- Reading: Define Utopia as a class Personal connection: create a utopia by describing what a perfect day would be for you (this could also function as a writing pre-assessment)
Informal Formative Assessment (Not graded) While you read: Literature circles driven by personalized prompts (sticky notes)
Exit Card3-2-1 Blastoff! 3 – Write (or tell me) the three most important ideas you have learned so far. 2 – Write (or tell me) two questions you still have about what you have learned. 1 – Write (or tell me) one way you prepare for tomorrow’s discussion
How does the author create a picture in the reader’s mind? Give specific instances in which important details are revealed that help you understand the community. How is the idea of family reflected in this novel? What are families like, and how are they similar to and different from families in your own experience? Discuss the character of Jonas’s father. How did your impression of him change as the novel progressed? Why or why not?
Are these about equal in terms of time, effort, and rigor? Do they relate to the essential questions and KUDOs? Do they meet the standards? After you read: Assessment
Alternative Assessments In a well-crafted essay, determine whether the world as depicted in The Giver is a utopia, dystopia, or a combination. What aspects of this world were most and least appealing to you? Why? Relate your response to our big ideas and essential questions.
If students complete this project ahead of time, they may work on an extension activity: Read Louis Lowry’s novel Gathering Blue, which she has called a “companion” to The Giver. How are the worlds in these two books similar? How are they different? Do you think the character with light eyes at the end of the book is Jonas? Why or why not?
Interest - Students are allowed to choose the product based on their interest in a particular area. Content- Students are encouraged to choose the activity that fits their learning style. Readiness- Students are given the opportunity to complete an extension activity. Students will conference with the teacher for support in the definitions of the projects.
The Necessity of D.I. • Readiness • Interests • Learning Profiles And more!
Achievement Categoriesin a “typical” classroom • Group 1/Gifted: Identified GT, highest ability, nonproductive, culturally diverse learners, and 2E students. • Group 2/High Achieving: Highly competent and productive. Not identified GT. • Group 3/Average: Achieve in the average range. • Group 4/Below Average: Struggle with math or reading and score slightly below grade level. • Group 5/Far Below Average: Struggle with most subject areas and score significantly below proficiency levels on tests.
Being In the Zone Vygotsky adapted by Carol Tomlinson, ASCD 2004 Heacox 2009
Learning Profile Factors Learning Environment quiet/noise warm/cool still/mobile flexible/fixed “busy”/”spare” Group Orientation independent/self orientation group/peer orientation adult orientation combination Gender & Culture Cognitive Style Creative/conforming Essence/facts Expressive/controlled Nonlinear/linear Inductive/deductive People-oriented/task or Object oriented Concrete/abstract Collaboration/competition Interpersonal/introspective Easily distracted/long Attention span Group achievement/personal achievement Oral/visual/kinesthetic Reflective/action-oriented Intelligence Preference analytic practical creative verbal/linguistic logical/mathematical spatial/visual bodily/kinesthetic musical/rhythmic interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist existential
Cognitive Abilities Learning Styles (visual, spatial, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic) Socioeconomic and family factors Readiness Learning Pace Gender Influences Cultural/Ethnic Influences How students value learning Confidence in Learning Issues specific to your setting Additional Considerations
Brainstorm! What are some of the reasons you have been offered from those skeptical or dismissive of differentiation? Take a few minutes to discuss the reasons (and your responses) at your table, and then be prepared to share!
Why wouldn’t teachers embrace differentiation? Illegitimate Concerns Legitimate Concerns Class size Resource (time) Resource (materials) Resource (colleagues) Resource (training) Sustainability • The “real world” isn’t differentiated • Standards and differentiation don’t mix • There are too many “competing” initiatives • Differentiation isn’t “fair”
Is the “real world” differentiated? • Does the “real world” recognize and accommodate differences in people? • Do we harm or disable students when we differentiate for them? • Is it better if they “tough it out” in a setting that treats all students “equally? • Let’s investigate!
Standards and Differentiation • Standards are what we teach. Differentiation is how we teach. • There is no such thing as a standard that is appropriately challenging to all learners, therefore accommodations and adaptations must be made.
Standards and Differentiation Students will do well on standardized, undifferentiated tests only if they have learned the material in class, and differentiated practices are the way to get that accomplished. R. Wormeli Be clear: We grade against standards, not routes students take or techniques teachers use to achieve those standards. Examples follow
Think Dots: Grade 2 Math TSW will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using analog and digital clocks. Think Dots Version 1: Time The Think Dots could be used the following ways: Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment Dawn LoCassale
Think Dots: Grade 2 Math TSW will tell and write them to the quarter hour, using analog and digital clocks. Version 2: Time The Think Dots could be used the following ways: Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post assessment Dawn LoCassale
Geography Goal: TSW analyze the interrelationship of population centers and geography. • Task One (More structure) Students are given a topographic map with population centers noted. Students are to identify based on geography why the population centers are located in each area of the state. • Task Two (More open-ended) Students are given a topographic map and asked to place population centers where they predict they will develop. Students are to provide a rationale for their placement. Heacox 2009