Revolution in America End of Revolutionary War Life on the Homefront Life in Military
Treaty of Paris • The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, established peace between Great Britain and the United States. That same day, at Versailles, Britain signed separate peace treaties with France and Spain. • Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States. • defined the new nation's boundaries, giving the United States the land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River, bordered to the south by Spanish territory and to the north by the British territory of Canada. • nullified the Proclamation of 1763. • Treaty of Versailles between Britain and Spain, Britain returned Florida to Spain. However, the treaty did not define the northern boundary of West Florida (now southern Mississippi and Alabama), an omission which led to years of dispute between Spain and the United States. • Pacific Northwest was the object of competing claims by Spain, England, and Russia. The US would join the struggle for this territory.
Victory • Was the war won by the Patriots or lost by the British generals? • What do you believe was the turning point of the war? • Was there a point that Patriot victory became inevitable?
What if? • What would have happened in the colonies if the outcome of the Revolution had been different? • How long would fighting have continued? • What other battles may have occurred? • Would British have ever given up? • Could Patriots have outlasted them?
War on the Homefront • Revolutionary War fought at home • No one was left untouched by the war • How does this alter experience of war? • How do average, non-military Americans experience war? • Compare Revolution to current war in Iraq
Loyalists, Patriots, Neutrals • Who are you? • Role play activity – • Think about your assigned role • Are you patriot, loyalist or neutral? • Why? • *Keep in mind the reason is just as important as your view toward the war
Divided Country • Patriots, Loyalists, Neutrals • Conflict did not end with England • Conflict within America • Impact of this conflict?
Choices during Revolution • What dilemma did slaves face? • What were their choices? What were the consequences of their choices? • What factors impacted choices and choosing sides during Revolution?
War was fought at home • On our soil • British troops, American troops both living, hiding and fighting in communities • Devastating effect • Many homes and property destroyed
British Barracks in Trenton • The British government expected its mainland provinces to defend themselves, and garrisoned few troops in the thirteen colonies until after the Seven Years' War commenced. This 1936 photo shows the barracks that were built at Trenton, New Jersey, as quarters for a regiment (about 600 troops) in 1759. Officers occupied the two-story house on the right, while enlisted personnel were housed in the less-commodious bays forming a square horseshoe to the left.
Delaware Countryside • The landscape along the Atlantic seaboard was dramatically changed. Tree cover disappeared in much of the terrain by the 1780s, such as in this countryside scene sketched near Wilmington, Delaware.
Life in the military • Diversity of soldiers • Primarily young, single and/or propertyless men who signed up for monetary bonuses and promises of land • The citizen soldier tended to hire replacements after initial experience in war • Towns had to meet quota - Signed up slaves and indentured servants • Foreign-born troops – 45% of PA soldiers were Irish and 13% German • Northern colonies turned to African Americans, both slave and free, for recruitment • Southern states resisted African American soldiers at first, but soon enlisted them • 5,000 African American soldiers enlisted in Continental Army • Women in Army as well – mostly poor, wives and widows of soldiers – cooks, nurses and launderers • Low pay, many times no wages, poor quality of clothing and little food supplied
Life in Military • Joseph Plumb Martin’s account (handed out in class on Monday to read for today) • How was his life as a soldier? • What were his concerns? • Is this comparable to life in military at other times? (what are similarities and differences between his experience and that of soldiers in other wars in our history and today?)
Life in the Military • Officers • Developed strong sense of pride and commitment to cause • Endured hardships • Image of themselves as professionals • Officers’ wives • Prided themselves on service to nation • Came for extended visits and officers’ wives developed friendships that lasted throughout lives – many of their husbands became early leaders of the country • Disease • Endemic disease in camps • Dysentery, fever, smallpox • Smallpox – Colonists did not have immunity to disease, but British soldiers did
Military • Textbook discusses life in the army and the creation of the Continental Army by the Second Continental Congress on May 10, 1775 • Army was not the only division of the military • Marine Corps • Navy • All must be studied and examined to get an accurate idea of who was involved in revolution
Marines • November 10, 1775 - Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia passed a resolution stating that "two Battalions of Marines be raised" • This resolution established the Continental Marines and marked the birth date of the United States Marine Corps. • Serving on land and at sea, these first Marines distinguished themselves in a number of important operations, including their first amphibious raid into the Bahamas in March 1776. • Under command of Captain Samuel Nicholas - Nicholas, the first commissioned officer in the Continental Marines, remained the senior Marine officer throughout the American Revolution • After Treaty of Paris in 1783, war ended and the Continental Navy and Marines went out of existence for a brief time. • Formerly re-established on July 11, 1798
Homefront • Men away from home for long periods of time • Previously, women were handling only the “indoor” affairs of the household • Women now responsible for outdoor affairs as well - start taking on new roles • Abigail Adams • Considered herself a farmeress • Stopped calling the farm “yours” in letters to husband; started calling the farm “ours” • Profound change in pronoun
Homefront • Disruption of life • Shortages of necessities • Shortage of soap, salt, and flour • Luxuries unavailable (no new clothing, ribbons or gloves) • Severe inflation • Soldiers on both sides plundered farms and houses • Stole horses and oxen and burned down fences • Smallpox and disease
Revolution in Society and Culture? • How did British political authority come to an end and how was it replaced by American political authority? Did social structures consequently change?
Revolution in Society? • Race/Ethnicity • What threat did Native Americans pose to the revolutionary cause? Why did the potential threat never materialize? • What threat did African Americans pose to the revolutionary cause? How did patriot leaders turn that to their advantage?
Revolution in Society • What impact did the Revolutionary War have on the lives of Americans? • How did the Treaty of Paris affect everyday lives?
Real Revolution • John Adams asserted that the real revolution took place between 1760 and 1775. Adams believed that the revolution ended before the fighting started because the Revolution was “in the minds of the people”, switching allegiance from Britain to America. • What and when was the revolution?
Revolution and Society • It has been said that the American Revolution was as much a battle over ideas as it was a military battle. • What do you think? • Battle of ideologies and/or Military Battles • What was the relative importance of each type of battle?
What was “revolution”? • Who was affected? • Positively • Negatively • What impact did revolution have on the diversity within American society? • What were values of Revolution?
Values of the Revolution • Portrait of Paul Revere – page 115 of text • What values are portrayed? • What does this portrait tell us about the revolutionary cause?
Values • Humility • Humble origins • Hard-work and make life for self and family • Self-made man • Intellectualism • No aristocracy • Fraternity • Equality???
Values, Ideas, Politics, Diversity, Independence • What challenges faced former colonists as they sought to establish the country? • Social • Political • Cultural • Economic • Military