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Secondary Education & Training In Africa (SEIA): Knowledge & Competencies for Economic Growth and Social Cohesi PowerPoint Presentation
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Secondary Education & Training In Africa (SEIA): Knowledge & Competencies for Economic Growth and Social Cohesi

Secondary Education & Training In Africa (SEIA): Knowledge & Competencies for Economic Growth and Social Cohesi

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Secondary Education & Training In Africa (SEIA): Knowledge & Competencies for Economic Growth and Social Cohesi

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  1. Secondary Education & Training In Africa (SEIA):Knowledge & Competencies for Economic Growth and Social Cohesion SEIA, Africa Region, World Bank WWW.WORLDBANK.ORG/AFR/SEIA Presented in Paris, WGICSD, November 2007

  2. The SEIA program • To support countries develop long term strategies for long term development & improvement SE in SSA • Focus on Secondary Ed: After PE & before TE, ages 12-18, covering JSE & SSE • Emphasis on General Secondary Education , complementing earlier work on SD In SSA (Johanson & Adams, 2004) • Three regional conferences and eight thematic studies… • Summary paper for Accra Conference, May 2007 • Collaboration and support from a large number of multilateral and bilateral donor agencies: ADEA, UNESCO (Dakar), Norway, Ireland, Netherlands….. Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  3. Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  4. Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  5. Comparative SE GER (%) Sub-Saharan Africa Source: UIS Global Education Digest 2006 Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  6. Kenya: time for secondary education ? • In 2004 over 657,000 pupils sat for the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education, - up from 588,000 in 2003. • An increase of almost 12% in the number of exam candidates - the highest increase to be recorded during the past decade. • More than half of those who left primary school last year cannot be accommodated at Kenya's 4,000 public secondary schools (the country has 17,600 government-run primary schools). • While some primary school leavers will be able to attend private secondary schools, the fees these institutions charge are beyond the reach of most parents - whose children may be forced to abandon formal schooling. Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  7. Illustrative relationship between human capital thresholds and economic growth Contribution of human capital to economic growth High income countries that want to stay competitive and need to respond to with a demand for highly educated personnel linear regression line Middle income countries confronted with a demand for personnel with more advanced education and training RealModel Low income countries that have not reached the basic education threshold To overcome human capital constraints on development in growing low income economies, expansion of access to junior secondary education in particular is critical Human Capital Stock • Source: Adapted from UNESCO BREDA 2005 and Berthélemy (2004) Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  8. Sub-Sahara Africa Pop: 732 m (2005) 881 m (2015) 960 m (2020) Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  9. Africa’s SE Challenges for the 21st Century • Progress in NER to achieve EFA, but population growth will require extra budgetary support: • Demand for JSE and SSE growing: 9 years of basic education, then pathways to SE & VTET • African Economies need better-skilled labor for growth and foreign investment • In most SSA countries the local employers are dissatisfied with primary and JSE graduates’ knowledge and competencies; However, reliable data remain scarce • Public Resources need justification: Access, Efficiency, Attainment, Equity, Quality & Relevance of Learning and Skills Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  10. Africa’s SE Challenges for the 21st Century • Fiscal constraints and priorities: sustainable post-basic expansion requires significant gains in cost-efficiency • In SSA on average less than 25-30% of the age cohort completes JSE and less than 10-20% completes SSE: significant wastage • Lessons from Asia: BEFORE and DURING expansion improve & maintain Quality • Africa’s challenge will be to “transit” from an ELITE post-primary to a “MASS” JSE, and increased equitable enrolment at post-basic levels with flexible LLL pathways • Even at current transition and attainment rates African SE enrollments will put significant pressure on the systems Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  11. REALITY CHECK: SECONDARY EDUCATION CLASSROOM Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank Photo: Jbregman Lagos 2005

  12. In summary, in SSA the quality and efficiency of BOTH primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social developmentWhat are the implications? Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  13. Emerging Messages from the SEIA study • Bottom-up approach: • Broad Access to Primary remains priority #1 • Expansion sequential, but gradual • How resources are spent is as important as the amount of resources available: • Equity in Public Resources Allocation • Decentralization is a global trend in SE • Public-Private-Partnerships (PPPs) are essential: • mobilize additional SE resources • nurture community support Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  14. Emerging messages from the SEIA study • Quality improved: JSE and SSE Graduate Profiles & Attainment Standards should be in place, understood by stakeholders, and monitored for impact; • Modernizing JSE and SSE: • Curricula restructuring and content renewal: new subjects ICT / S&T / Civics / Health / Economics • Re-invest in SE Teacher Training • Review JSE and SSE Teacher certification process • Improve SE outcome results by cost-efficient monitoring of SE teachers and SE schools (currently huge data problems) Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  15. Science &Technology: Curricula & Teaching JSE-SSE Classic Subject-oriented; Difficult to integrate new subjects Chalk & Talk, limited Info sources; fixed classroom & lab hours Teacher source of Knowledge; Student memorizes Project & team work difficult to accommodate Teaching is mainly Exam & Selection driven Assessment of key Competencies mainly absent (no employment link) KE in 21st Century Attainment targets linked across S&T subjects and regularly reviewed Student analyses facilitated by Teacher; diverse info sources (teamwork, ICT applications) Science & Technology focuses on Humanity / World-we-live-in as returning S&T themes Students develop “projects” through teamwork Instruction is “Content-Profile driven”; Exams focus on Certification and (core) Competencies Exams & Assessment regularly reviewed and reformed Source: JBregman, World Bank, SEIA, 2005 Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  16. SE Graduate Profile Indicators: Competencies: Knowledge, Skills , Attitudes, and Values: Individual Institutional Collective goals External Factors: Youth / Adolescent world (Pedagogy) Africa / country cultural, social, and economic relevance International job-mobility and quality Use of language, symbols and texts Use interactively Knowledge Information (ICT tools) Technology Working in Groups Relate well to Others Ability for Teamwork Manage & resolve conflicts Act Autonomously See the big picture Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  17. Promising practices in SE in SSA • Madagascar changing from 5 to 7-year Primary (Kenya 8+4; Mauritius 6+5+2) • Namibia: Life Sciences as a new subject in JSE combining Biology, Agriculture and Environmental Education • Botswana: Integrated Science includes biology, chemistry, physics, agriculture and environmental education • Botswana, South Africa and Ghana: school-based results amount to 20-30% of JSE examination marks Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  18. Does SEIA Report shed light on Skills Development? Prime concern SEIA is Development & Expansion SE: • Focus is Education and not Training • Focus is formal settings rather than NFE or Informal Education But emerging messages ,within SEIA perspective, do relate to Skills Development….. Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  19. SEIA AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Three historical tasks of the transition from selective elite SE system to a mass system: • Expand access to 9/10 yrs Basic Education incorporating all or part JSE • Create opportunities for further formal/informal learning for all • Prepare students for work in the context of a technologically driven global economy Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  20. SEIA AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Distinguish : • Junior Secondary Education - Part of Basic Education with core curriculum for all including generic skills • Senior Secondary Education -Diversified pathways incl. TVE to offer a wide range of opportunities to JSE graduates and strengthen linkages with the world of work Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  21. COMPLEMENTARY WB STUDY ON SKILLS DEVELOPMENT- KEY MESSAGES • Skills Development: What?Where?When?How? • Emphasise first chances • Promote curriculum choice • Distinguish TVE from Non Formal Training • TVET works best where market driven • Enterprise based training has positive impact but is not the whole solution (Adams, 2007) Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  22. PLACE OF SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ON PPE AGENDA • PPE as the emerging major challenge in education for Sub Saharan Africa e.g UNESCO, ADEA, CONFEMEN • WB/SEIA supporting ADEA 2008 Biennial Conference: PPE Working definition: • Following primary education or its equivalent • Age 11/12 + • In principle open-ended • All forms, modes and types • Holistic • For life, society, work and further learning • Multiple providers and resources Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

  23. THANK YOU SEIA website: WWW.WORLDBANK.ORG/AFR/SEIA Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank