WHY IS SOMETHING SO SAD THIS FUNNY: USING POLITICAL CARTOONS
WHY USE POLITICAL CARTOONS? • Lead-in questions for groups: • What is the purpose of the cartoon? • How does it make you feel? • What methods does the cartoon use to make you feel that way? • What issue is the cartoon trying to capture? • How does the cartoon try to persuade you? • Is the cartoon relevant to you as citizens? • What is the artists opinion on the issue? • Is there text? How is it used?
THE 1ST AMENDMENT • “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” -1st Amendment • Free speech and freedom of the press promotes "The free flow of ideas essential to political democracy and democratic institutions" and limits the ability of the state to subvert other rights and freedoms • It promotes a marketplace of ideas, which includes, but is not limited to, the search for truth • Political cartoons are an example of free speech and freedom of the press.
METHODS • Exaggeration- To represent as greater than actual size. To make overstatements. The act of making something more noticeable than usual. • When you study a cartoon, look for any characteristics that seem overdone or overblown. (Facial characteristics and clothing are some of the most commonly exaggerated characteristics.) Then, try to decide what point the cartoonist was trying to make through exaggeration. • Irony-A literary expression employing contrasts in order to produce humorous or rhetorical effects. Irony of a situation is a discrepancy between the expected result and actual results when enlivened by perverse appropriateness.
METHODS CONT… • Juxtaposition- To place side by side, especially for comparison and contrast. Also, this method is sometimes known as analogy. An analogy is a comparison between two unlike things that share some characteristics. By comparing a complex issue or situation with a more familiar one, cartoonists can help their readers see it in a different light. • Symbolism- Cartoonists use simple objects, or symbols, to stand for larger concepts or ideas.
WHY USE HUMOR? • Reductio ad Absurdum- Latin meaning, “reduction to the absurd. • Used by the ancient Greeks and Romans in logical arguments. • If a claim gets you an absurd or humorous result, then it can be assumed that the original claim or proof was deficient or illogical. • If A=B, and B is absurd (ridiculous), therefore, A must also be absurd or ridiculous. • Cartoonists use the same logic. By making you laugh at the ridiculousness of a situation or a person, then we can assume that there is a problem with that situation or person to begin with.
Assignment • Make your own cartoon. • Write: • Find an issue • Explain the issue? • Explain the different sides of the issue and which one you took? • What methods did you use to create a reductio ad absurdum argument? • How are you trying to persuade your audience? What are you trying to make them think? • Draw Cartoon • ONE PAGE-DOUBLE SPACED-12 FONT