The American Civil War1861-1865 SS8H6: The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign and March to the Sea, and Andersonville.
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
2-6-12 Warm Up- Writing Prompt • In one paragraph, explain at least 3 issues/reasons why 11 Southern states seceded from 1860-1861. • Use your notes and the Causes of the Civil War PowerPoint handout to include in your paragraph.
Ironclads Ironclads patrolled rivers in the South.
Name__________________ Date___________________ Period_________________ Significant Battles of the Civil WarGraphic Organizer
Fort Sumter, South Carolina • The Confederate soldiers fired the 1st shots of the Civil War at Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.
Battle of Bull Run: Manassas, Virginia • 1st major battle between the Union vs. Confederates
Leaders at the Battle of Bull Run General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederate) General Irvin McDowell (Union)
Battle of Antietam: Sharpsburg, Maryland • This was the first time the South invaded the North. • Pres. Lincoln told McClellan to protect Washington D.C. • September 17, 1862-This was the bloodiest 1-day battle of the Civil War. • This battle lasted 12 hours with 23,000 soldiers either killed, wounded, & missing. • Both armies stubbornly held their ground that day. • The next day, the armies gathered their wounded and buried their dead. • That night, Lee’s army (South) withdrew to Virginia. • This was the first time photographs were taken of a battle field.
Leaders at the Battle of Antietam General George McClellan General Robert E. Lee
Emancipation Proclamation • On September 22, 1862, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. • It stated that unless the Confederate States of America (CSA) surrendered by January 1, 1863, “all slaves in states or districts in rebellion against the USA will be thenceforth and forever free.”
Emancipation Proclamation It freed the slaves only in states that have seceded from the Union. It did not free slaves in border states.
Blacks in the Military After the Emancipation Proclamation blacks began to join the Union Army Initially they were only used for manual labor Eventually, Blacks saw live combat 54th regiment out of Massachusetts William Carney
Battle of Gettysburg – turning point of war Lee realized that the South was not winning war and decided to attack the North on its own territory (Pennsylvania). Confederacy attacked North, but Union held firm July 3, General Pickett led 15,000 Confed. army across open fields - Union mowed them down ("Pickett’s Charge") Lee (South) was defeated and retreated to Virginia. From July 1-3, 1863, 51,000 soldiers were either killed or injured. Gettysburg is the largest battle in the history of the Western hemisphere. It was the last time the South invaded the North.
Leaders of the Battle of Gettysburg General George Meade General Robert E. Lee
Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia • On September 19-20, 1863, the Confederates were able to defeat the Union and pushed them back into Tennessee. Leaders
Leaders of the Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia General William Rosecrans Braxton Bragg
Battle of Chattanooga: Chattanooga, Tennessee • Continuation of the Battle of Chickamauga (GA)
Leaders of the Battle of Chattanooga General Ulysses S. Grant (Union) General Braxton Bragg (CSA) General William T. Sherman (Union)
Atlanta Campaign • General William T. Sherman’s plan was to march through Georgia, take Atlanta, and leave a path of destruction to Savannah. • Beginning on July 20, 1864, General Sherman burned and tore up the city of Atlanta for almost 40 days. • By September 2, 1864 the Union troops had captured and destroyed Atlanta.
Sherman’s March to Sea • Field Order No. 120 was issued by Sherman ordering Union troops to “live off the land”. • They would gather food from fields and take livestock for food. • Also, troops were supposed to collect food, horses, & mules. • They were not allowed to enter homes of civilians to steal…Of course, the troops did not follow that rule.
Sherman’s March to Sea • Sherman waged Total War on the South (destroy anything useful to the enemy). • His troops destroyed railroad tracks, crops, burned homes and businesses. • Sherman divided his troops into 2 groups and they advanced towards Savannah going different directions. • After fighting many battles along the way, Sherman’s troops captured Savannah on December 21, 1864.
Sherman’s letter to Lincoln when he captured SavannahAt the end of his famous March to the Sea, which was intended to destroy the Southern spirit, Sherman sent this telegram to Abraham Lincoln. "I beg to present you as a Christmas gift, the City of Savannah, with 150 heavy guns, and plenty of ammunition, and about 25,000 bales of cotton."
Comprehension Check Questions 1. This telegram was written by A. General William T. Sherman. B. Abraham Lincoln. C. Samuel Morse. D. Alexander Graham Bell. 2. The telegram is addressed to A. President Lincoln. B. the state of Mississippi. C. Savannah. D. William T. Sherman. 3. The date on the telegram is A. November, 1864. B. July 4, 1776. C. December 22, 1864. D. Christmas Day. 4. What is Sherman giving to Lincoln for Christmas? A. a Southern plantation B. the city of Savannah C. Lee's surrender D. some of Sherman's neckties
April 3, 1865 - Grant took Richmond Va. - final blow to Lee's army Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865 at APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE All Confed. troops forced to take an oath of loyalty to U.S. otherwise, terms of surrender were lenient Lincoln didn't want a humiliated South and further conflict issue of states' rights now "solved"- fed. gov't had asserted its status
After four bloody years of civil war, the South was defeated.
Andersonville • The largest military prison of the Confederate army during the Civil War • Located near Andersonville, Georgia • 52,300 Union soldiers were detained there between February 1864 and April 1865 • More than 13,200 died from disease, exposure, and lack of medicines. • After the war, the commander of the camp, Captain Henry Wirz, was convicted and hanged for the maltreatment and death of Union POWs. He was the only Confederate official to be executed.
EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR Creation of a single unified country Abolition of slavery Increased power to federal government – decreased states rights U.S.A. now an industrial nation (more factories than farms) A stronger sense of nationalism Western lands increasingly opened to settlers. South was economically and physically devastated. The Reconstruction Period (rebuilding the U.S.) began, but a deep hatred of the North remained...
Comprehension Questions and Essays • Why did Lincoln give this speech at Gettysburg? Why has this become a famous speech? Why did his words have such an impact on Americans past and present? Be able to analyze important passages in the three paragraphs of this short speech. • What was the capital of Georgia in Antebellum times? • Why is the election of 1860 so important? What state was Abraham Lincoln from? • What seven states seceded from the Union before Lincoln officially became president? What was the first state to leave? What did they call their new country? • Who was Jefferson Davis and Alexander Stephens? • What was the Union plan for victory? • Why did Abraham Lincoln not permit the Southern states to peacefully leave the Union? What was his goal in the war? • What advantages and disadvantages did the two sides hold? • What economic problems faced the South once the war began? • What roles did women play during the war? Who was Clara Barton? • What was the Great locomotive chase? • What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation? • What was the significance of the Battle of Antietam? • Why was Chickamauga different from other Western battles? • Why was Gettysburg such an important battle in the war? • What happened in the Election of 1864? • What was Andersonville famous for? • What happened in the Battle of Atlanta? What happened to the city after the war? • Why did the 54th Massachusetts become a famous regiment? • Who was William T. Sherman? What was Sherman’s March to the Sea? • What happened at Appomattox Courthouse?