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The Science of Early Childhood Development and the Foundations of Prosperity PowerPoint Presentation
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The Science of Early Childhood Development and the Foundations of Prosperity

The Science of Early Childhood Development and the Foundations of Prosperity

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The Science of Early Childhood Development and the Foundations of Prosperity

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  1. The Science of Early Childhood Development and the Foundations of Prosperity JACK P. SHONKOFF, M.D. JULIUS B. RICHMOND FAMRI PROFESSOR OF CHILD HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT DIRECTOR, CENTER ON THE DEVELOPING CHILD HARVARD UNIVERSITY 2009 Economic Summit on Early Childhood Investment Harrisburg, PA| April 27, 2009

  2. Decades of Science from Many Disciplines All Point to the Same Conclusion • The healthy development of children provides a strong foundation for healthy and competent adulthood, responsible citizenship, economic productivity, strong communities, and a sustainable society.

  3. Five Numbers to Remember • 700 per second • 18 months • 2:1 ratio • 90-100 percent • 3:1 odds

  4. Neural Circuits are Wired in a Bottom-Up Sequence (700 synapses formed per second in the early years) Language Higher Cognitive Function Sensory Pathways (Vision, Hearing) FIRST FIVE YEARS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Years Months Source: C.A. Nelson (2000)

  5. Barriers to Educational Achievement Emerge at a Very Young Age 1200 1000 College Educated Parents 800 Working Class Parents Cumulative Vocabulary (Words) 600 Welfare Parents 400 200 16 mos. 24 mos. 36 mos. Child’s Age (Months) Source: Hart & Risley (1995)

  6. Significant Adversity Impairs Developmentin the First Three Years 100% 80% Children with Developmental Delays 60% 40% 20% 1-2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of Risk Factors Source: Barth et al. (2008)

  7. Risk Factors for Adult Heart Disease are Embedded in Adverse Childhood Experiences 3.5 3 2.5 Odds Ratio 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5,6 7,8 Adverse Experiences Source: Dong et al, (2004)

  8. Early Experiences Affect the Architecture of the DevelopingBrain

  9. Brains and Skills Are Shaped by the “Serve and Return” Nature of Human Interaction

  10. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Capacities Are Inextricably Intertwined Within the Architecture of the Brain

  11. The Brain Architecture of Memory and Learning

  12. The Brain Architecture of Anxiety and Fear

  13. Science Tells Us that Early Life Experiences Are Built Into Our Bodies • Research on the biology of stress illustrates how threat raises heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone levels, which can impair brain architecture, immune status, metabolic systems, and cardiovascular function.

  14. Three Levels of Stress Positive Brief increases in heart rate, mild elevations in stress hormone levels. Tolerable Serious, temporary stress responses, buffered by supportive relationships. Toxic Prolonged activation of stress response systems in the absence of protective relationships.

  15. Toxic Stress Changes Brain Architecture Typical neuron— many connections Normal Toxic stress Damaged neuron— fewer connections Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus Sources: Radley et al. (2004) Bock et al. (2005)

  16. Research Findings Can Guide Policies Supportive relationships and positive learning experiences begin at home but can also be provided through a range of services with well-documented effectiveness factors. A balanced approach to emotional, social, cognitive, and language development will best prepare children for success in school, the workplace, and the community. Highly specialized interventions are needed as early as possible for children experiencing tolerable or toxic stress.

  17. Preventive Intervention is More Efficient and Produces More Favorable Outcomes Than Later Remediation Programs targeting the earliest years Rates of return to human capital investment Preschool programs K-12 schooling College, job training B-3 4-5 6-18 19+ Age Heckman, J. (2007)

  18. Cost/Benefit Analyses Show Positive Returns Two Early Childhood Programs Demonstrate Range of Benefits to Society $16.14 $18 Total Return per $1 Invested $16 $14 Returns to Society $12 $11.35 4 x Returns to Individuals $10 $4.10 $6 Crime-cost savings $0.16 $1.55 $4 Special education, welfare, income taxes 1.5 x $2.28 $2 $3.24 $1.57 Increased earnings Perry Preschool (through age 40) Abecedarian Project (through age 21)

  19. Invest Now or Pay More LaterGetting it right early is less costly and more effective than dealing with problems later in life. $1.94 billion $2 billion $30m $1.5 billion $1 billion $750 million $414m $500 million $1.55 Federal $ in PA (2007) $1,906m $336m PA State $ (2007) Early Care and Education (275,534 “served”) Corrections (346,268 “served”)

  20. Advancing an Effective Policy Agenda Build an appropriately skilled early childhood workforce whose expertise matches the needs of the children and families it serves. Invest in “evidence-based” programs that are implemented well. Leverage the power of bipartisan support and public-private partnerships. View expanding opportunities for children as a moral responsibility and a wise social and economic investment.

  21. Five Numbers to Remember • 700 per second • 18 months • 2:1 ratio • 90-100 percent • 3:1 odds

  22. www.developingchild.harvard.edu