Moods of the Arabic Verb Gordon Center for Language
Mood • Just as case changes the voweling for nouns, mood changes the voweling for verbs. • Mood only affects the present tense of the verb, never the past tense. • Arabic has three moods: indicative, subjunctive and jussive. Indicative is the default mood. • A verb will be in the subjunctive if it is preceded by the following particles: ل, كيْ, حتى, كيْلا, أنْ, لأنْ, لنْ, ألّا, لئلّا, عسى • A verb will be in the jussive when it is preceded by لم, when it is the verb in a conditional clause introduced by إنْ, or if it is in the imperative (affirmative or negative).
Mood • Important changes for the jussive • Except for 2nd and 3rd person feminine plural (انتنّ, هنّ), verb conjugations ending in ن lose their final ن • Hollow verbs lose their middle vowel (e.g. يقوم becomes (يقمْ Exceptions: when the vowel is pronounced as a consonant, or if the conjugation ends in a long vowel sound, it is retained. • Defective verbs lose their final vowel (e.g. يدعو becomes (يدعُ • Doubly weak verbs also lose their final vowel (e.g. ياتي becomes ياتْ ) • Hamzated verbs keep their Hamza
Mood • Important changes for the subjunctive • Except for 2nd and 3rd person feminine plural (انتنّ, هنّ), verb conjugations ending in ن lose their final ن