The Concept of Culture Think of 10 ways in which we use the word culture or cultural. Eg. Culture shock, Canadian culture, multicultural
The Concept of Culture C. Construction C. Awareness Deviant C. C. Shock Underground C. Rural C. Agriculture Pop C. Youth C. Global C. C. Identity gay/lesbian C C. Exchange C. Perspective C. Assimilation Cross-C Elite C. Dead C C. Diversity C. Sustainability Café C. Multicultural Canadian C. C. event To be C. C. Imperialism C. survival High C. C. Hegemony drug C. Enculturation C. Evolution Subculture C. Phenomenon uncultured World C. Intercultural Consumer C Bacterial C. Counter C. Safety C Public C.. C. Genocide Corporate C. C. Relativism
Non-anthropological/sociological Agriculture Bacterial C. Horticulture, Aquaculture Refinement of mind, tastes, and manners High C. Elite C To be C. uncultured A continuum Global C. World C. C. Evolution Public C. A Way of Life Rural C. Corporate C. Canadian C. Youth C. Café C. Island C. A set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices Counter C. Safety C. drug C. Subculture Consumer C C. Perspective gay/lesbian C
A celebration of difference C. Diversity C. Awareness Multicultural C. Relativism Intercultural Cross-C C. Exchange A disparagement of difference C. Shock Deviant C. Pop C. Underground C. Subculture C. Assimilation An object (of manipulation) C. Sustainability C. Genocide Dead C C. survival C. Hegemony C. Imperialism C. event C. Heritage A sense of agency C. Construction Enculturation A sense of identity and otherness C. Identity Canadian C
Culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex wholewhich includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habitsacquired my man as a member of society. E. B. Tylor 1871 Edward Burnett Tylor 1832-1917
`The sum total of knowledge, attitudes and habitual behaviour patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society' Ralph Linton (1940). The pattern of life within a community, the regularly recurring activities and material and social arrangements characteristic of a particular group'.Ward Goodenough (1957):
“Culture is the framework of beliefs, expressive symbols, and values in terms of which individuals define their feelings and make their judgements” (Geertz 1957 American Anthropologist 59:32-54). `an historically transmitted pattern of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic form by means which men communicate' (Geertz 1973: 89). “Cultures are traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behaviour of the people exposed to them.... Cultural traditions include customs and opinions developed over the generations about proper and improper behaviour” (Kottak 2008)
Culture is a way of life Ideas Attitudes Values Material Objects Behavior Patterns “Everything that people have, think, and do as members of a society” (Ferraro, 2008) Culture is Relative
What is Canadian Culture? I am Canadian 2 I am Canadian 1 I A M C A N A D I A N !!! I am not a lumberjack or a fur trader, And I don't live in an igloo or eat blubber or own a dogsled, And I don't know Jimmy, Sally, or Susie from Canada, Although I am certain they are really, really nice. I have a Prime Minister, not a President. I speak English and French, not American. And I pronounce it "about" ... not "a-boot". I can proudly sew my country's flag on my backpack. I believe in peacekeeping not policing; Diversity not assimilation; And that the beaver is a truly proud and noble animal! A tuque is hat; a chesterfield is a couch. And it is pronounced ZED not ZEE, ZED! Canada is the second largest landmass, The first nation of hockey, And the best part of North America!
Dimensions of Culture • Values • Norms • Ideas/Beliefs Attitudes/Worldviews • Roles • Symbols • Traditions • Artifacts
Characteristics of Culture • Culture is learned • Culture is unconscious • Culture is shared • Culture is integrated • Culture is Symbolic • Culture is a way of life • Culture is Dynamic • Culture is Relative
Culture is learned How do we learn our culture? Enculteration
Should everyone use a deodorant? Culture is Relative USA 89% French Canada 81% English Canada 77% United Kingdom 71% Italy 69% France 59% Australia 25% Such findings signal that Canadian values, ideas, and attitudes should not be relied upon when planning marketing forays into foreign consumer markets
Economics Kinship law Religion Medicine Culture is Integrated Winston Blackmore has 26 wives and more than 100 children
Culture is Dynamic 1896 1918 1924 1935 1955 1964 1970 1986 1995 2008
Why do humans have Culture? What is its function? • To communicate - makes the actions of individuals intelligible to others • A tool • gives meaning to differences • Identity • Adaptive Can culture be maladaptive?
Ishi ?-1916 Is Culture Public or Private?
Society `A distinct and relatively autonomous community whose members' mutual social relations are embedded in and expressed through the medium of culture'. `Any portion of a community regarded as a unit distinguishable by particular aims or standards of living or conduct'. i.e. culture `A group of people who occupy a specific locality and who share the same cultural traditions or culture.'
Summary: Concept of Culture Tylor’s definition and changes in concept Culture as a way of life: Have, do, think Characteristics of Culture: learned, relative, symbolic etc. Functions of culture Public vs. private issue Concept of society