The Eternal Frontier By Louis L’Amour
Before Reading: Connect to Your Life • Label the next available page in your LNb “The Eternal Frontier.” Then answer the following questions in complete sentences. • What frontiers would you like to explore? • What qualities does it take to be an explorer? • What do you think the future of the space program should strive to achieve?
Before Reading:Understand Vocabulary • Context clues can help you to recognize a word’s meaning. • Sometimes a sentence will include a familiar synonym that is used in addition to the unknown word. • In the examples on the next slide, look for the synonym (found in the sentences) for each bold-faced word.
Before Reading: Understand Vocabulary • The countries hope to incorporate their programs in order to combine their efforts in space. • The multitude watching the liftoff on television added up to the biggest crowd ever. • The loss of the probe was devastating to the budget but not destructive to the spirits of the scientists. • I recommend that remedy as an antidote to motion sickness. • The desire to be an astronaut was the impetus that gave him the force to succeed.
Reading 1: Persuasive Essays • A persuasive essay is a type of nonfiction work that offers an opinion on a subject and tries to sway readers to accept that opinion. • A persuasive essay appeals to both the mind AND the heart of the reader. • Writers support their arguments using different types of evidence, including: • Facts- statements that can be proved • Statistics- facts stated in numbers • Examples- specific instances that demonstrate the point • Quotations- statements made by experts
Reading 1: Persuasive Essays • Persuasive essays may be evaluated based on how well the author supports his or her opinions. • Writers use evidence to help convince the reader that their claims (opinions) are correct. • Questions to ask when evaluating include: • Is the evidence used adequate? • Is it accurate? • Is it appropriate? • What are the writer’s biases?
Group Discussion Questions • Why does the author consider the moon, asteroids, and planets “stepping stones”? • What point is the author making about the future by noting the rapid advances of the previous 70 years? • What does not restrict human beings, according to the author? • What one objection to his argument does L’Amour address? • What are some of the benefits that people have reaped from the space program?
Reading 2: Evaluating Evidence • When writers of nonfiction give a strong opinion about something they believe in, they are making a claim. • Claims must be backed up with evidence. • Evidence allows readers to decide whether they agree with the claim made by the author.
Reading 2: Evaluating Evidence • Evidence must be: • Adequate– this means there is enough evidence to convince the reader. • Appropriate– this means that it supports the case that the author is trying to make. • Accurate– this means that it is correct and provable. • You can also look at entertainment, believability, originality, and emotional power.
Reading 3: Identifying Author Bias • When a writer is said to have bias, he or she is stating an opinion in favor of one side of an argument or issue. • This means they are allowing their opinion to influence what they write about it. • To determine if writing is affected by bias: • First you need to identify the PRIMARY claim made by the author. • Then look for opinions that the author uses to support this claim.