Endogenetic processes and landforms Group members: Fung Ka Yan (8) Lau Chui Ying (16) Wong Ming Kong (32) Yeung Ka Wai (38) Luke Gilbert (45)
Introduction In this presentation we will talk about endogenetic processes and landforms work, and how the earth movements produce landforms between the Philippine plate and Pacific plate.
Endogenetic Processes • The ground we live on is moving all the time.Endogenetic Forces, are Forces within the earth that cause the ground to move. Rock layers at the surface of the earth are broken, twisted and shaken when the ground moves. Land is destroyed in many places and created in other places. When the land is shaped by endogenetic Forces we call this endogentic processes. • There are 3 main endogenetic processes: folding, faulting and vulcanicity. They take place mainly along the plate boundaries, which are the zones that are not stable. Endogenetic processes cause many major landform features.
Folding • Folding is one of the endogenetic processes.When two forces push towards each other from opposite sides, the rock layers will bend into folds. The process by which folds are formed are due to compressional forces known as folding. • There are large-scale and small-scale folds. Large-scale folds are found mainly along destructive plate boundaries.
Faulting • Faulting is the fracturing and displacement of more brittle rock strata along a fault plane either caused by tension or compression. • A break in rock along which a vertical or horizontal rock movement has occurred is called a fault. • The process of forming a fault is faulting. • The line of fault which appears on land surface is known as fault line. These lines are often lines of weakness which allow molten rock to rise up onto the earth surface when there is active volcanic activity nearby. • There are three types of fault which are caused by different endogenetic forces: - Normal fault - Reverse fault - Tear fault • Faulting forms two major landforms - block mountains and rift valleys.
Normal fault Philippine plate Pacific Plate
Reverse fault Philippine plate Pacific Plate
Tear fault Philippine plate Pacific plate
Vulcanicity • Vulcanicity (also known as volcanic activity or igneous activity) is one of the endogenetic processes. • Magma beneath the crust is under very great pressure. When folding and faulting occur, cracks or fractures which are lines of weakness. When these lines of weakness develop downward in the crust and reach the magma, they will release the pressure in the magma. • This allows magma to rise up along the lines of weakness and intrude into the crust. Some magma may even reach the earth's surface. • There are two types of vulcanicity: intrusive vulcanicity and extrusive vulcanicity.
The Philippine Plate collides with the Pacific Plate Philippine plate Pacific plate Magma converges Mantle
The Philippine Plate collides with the Pacific Plate Ocean trench forms (Pacific Plate) Sediment is folded up Cracks form Sediment Philippine Plate Pacific Plate Magma rises through cracks Denser plate subducts Subducted plate melts into magma Mantle
The Philippine Plate collides with the Pacific Plate Volcanic islands formed as magma rises up to the floor The Philippine Islands formed as a volcanic island arc Philippine trench Sediment Philippine Plate Pacific Plate magma rises Mantle
Conclusion • After this research, we can conclude that the plates converge, that is, move towards and collide with each other when the magma currents meet.
Reference • Certificate Exploring Geography book 1 • CVO Website • Earth’s Continental Plates