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Crossing Cultures

Crossing Cultures

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Crossing Cultures

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  1. Crossing Cultures Shelby Bates Sarah HartAnnalisa Day Tye Jones Chelsi Delgado Travis Marlar Jessica Denis Zach Williams

  2. Preview • Crossing Cultures • Relativism and Universalism • Generic Cultures and Ethics • Expatriate Paradoxes • Understanding Cross-Cultural Interactions • Reentry Into the Home Culture

  3. Crossing Cultures Introduction • Effective Cross-Cultural Communication • Culture Shock • Natural response that an individual has when attempting to react and control the new stimuli, perceptions, and feelings a visitor experiences

  4. Crossing Cultures Introduction • 6 months • U-Shaped Culture Shock Pattern • Discuss 3 Issues Related to Culture Shock • Paradoxes of culture-based ethical systems • Paradoxes of long-term expat manager • Reverse culture shock

  5. Relativism and Universalism • Paradox 5.1: Are ethical norms and standards universal or relative to the situation? • Individualistic Universal • Collectivistic Relative • But, of course, there are exceptions to both!

  6. Relativism and Universalism • Relativism • Hard to do business where ethics are all relative • Ex: terminating contracts, bribery, etc. • Donaldson’s ethical algorithm: • Would we do it under the same economic circumstances? • Ex: Harmful pesticides • Is it required to conduct business successfully and doesn’t violate a fundamental human right? • Ex: Right to property, freedom from torture

  7. Globalization • Spread of Universal Norms • Always exceptions • Russia

  8. Generic Cultures and Ethics • Paradox 5.2: Are there universal ethics across generic cultures? • 4 Types of Generic Cultures • Community Sharing • Authority Ranking • Equality Matching • Market Pricing

  9. Community Sharing • How is it scaled? • Nominal scaling • Only entities receive names • In-group and Out-group • One set or norms for each group

  10. Authority Ranking • How is it scaled? • Ordinal • There is no common unit of measurement. • Individual A, B, and C • Societal advantages but no scaling advantages • Authority prevails • Japan and Korea

  11. Market Pricing • How is it scaled? • Ratio • There is a zero point (zero money) and common unit of measurement. • Enables one to transform all dimensions of culture and compare them monetarily. • Pay for performance

  12. Which are you? • Your town decided to buy an expensive fire truck but who should receive protection? • Only the community receives protections and outsiders do not • All members receive protection (those who contributed monetarily) but the high-status individuals receive special attention • Everyone in the town and those who live close to it receive protection • Only those that contributed to the trucks purchase should receive protection

  13. Generic Cultures and Ethics • Any ethical system would have to fit inside one of the four generic cultures. • European Union Phenomena • The more mature and powerful the EU becomes the more individuals are identifying themselves with the EU rather than individual cultures. • Could this mean one world culture in the near future?

  14. Expatriate Paradoxes • Joyce and AsbjornOsland • 4 independent areas • Cultural intelligence • Mediation • Self-identity • Cautious optimism

  15. Expatriate Paradoxes • Paradox 5.3: Is the general stereotype of the host country valid? • Cultural Intelligence • “The social acuity necessary to decode behavior in the host culture and respond flexibly” • Expats believe general stereotypes are valid, but realize that many host-culture nationals don’t fit the stereotype • Many exceptions can occur • As globalization brings the world together, the number of exceptions will increase

  16. South African Stereotypes • Racist • Jungles and wild animals • High crime rates (rape/murder)

  17. Expatriate Paradoxes • Paradox 5.4: How can the expat manager be simultaneously powerful and powerless? • Expat managers typically powerful • Expected to accomplish goals with authority from home country • To operate in host culture’s framework, must rely/depend on locals for cultural knowledge & contacts • This reliance makes them “powerless”

  18. Expatriate Paradoxes • If host country emphasizes participative decision-making, expat must adjust so long-term goals can still be accomplished • South Africa • Multi-ethnic country, 11 national languages (recognized in their Constitution) • Easy to make mistakes in a nation so diverse • Expat reliance on locals: absolutely necessary

  19. Expatriate Paradoxes • Paradox 5.5: How can the expat manager be simultaneously free of home-country norms and restrained by host-country norms? • Freedom from home country norms/predictable behavior: “exhilarating” to most expats • Freedom to respond differently than they would in U.S. to new situations • However, to be fully accepted, expat must conform to host culture norms/expectations at home/work • Authority-ranking cultures: expat must act as distant superior; require special treatment while staying sensitive to everyone’s needs

  20. Expatriate Paradoxes • Expats must conform to cultural dictates in authority-ranking cultures; many grow accustomed to prestigious feeling when doing so • Others prepare their meals, take care of their tasks in the house, handle routines, & are available 24/7 • Difficulty readjusting to U.S. • South Africa • Unacceptable to present gifts with left hand; must use either right or both hands • Odd norms such as this differ from U.S.; restrain expats

  21. Expatriate Paradoxes • Paradox 5.6: How can the expat manager simultaneously accept the ideal cultural values of the home culture and realize that they do not exist in the home culture or exist only in attenuated form? • Tension between the ideal and actual values • Expat is representative of the general American stereotype • Pressure to act as good ambassadors even though some values are not always followed at home • Cultural values of American expats vs. South African expats

  22. Expatriate Paradoxes Paradox 5.7: How can the expat manager resolve the conflict between contradictory demands of the home and the host-culture subsidiary? • Tension created by the contradictory demands of the home office and the host-culture nationals • Completion of goals • Offices in the US demand the completion of goals in a short and constricted time frame • Pace of business in South Africa is reasonably slow and protracted • Problems arise when expats follow only the dictates of the home office

  23. Expatriate Paradoxes • Paradox 5.8: How can the expat manager simultaneously give up some home-country values and strengthen our home-country values? • Expat manager can simultaneously give up some home-country values and strengthen other home-country values • Expat learns values of host culture rapidly • Allows expats to develop great insight into home country values

  24. Expatriate Paradoxes • Expat gives up some home country values • Some go to the extreme • Majority will give up some noncore values while strengthening others • Example: Become less extroverted and informal • 60% of expats surveyed have experienced this

  25. Expatriate Paradoxes • Paradox 5.9: Is it possible for the expat manager to become more cosmopolitan and more idiosyncratic simultaneously? • Visitors become more cosmopolitan • Cultural practices change • Ex. Food Preferences • Expats become more accepting to norms of the host culture • Ex. “Work to live” • Expats become more idiosyncratic

  26. Expatriate Paradoxes • Paradox 5.10: How can the expat manager simultaneously think well of the host culture and avoid being taken advantage of? • Paradox 5.10 and 5.11 fall into the category of cautious optimism • Many Americans do not like to bargain in any situation • However, “The act of bargaining indicates to the representatives of the host culture that you are indeed becoming knowledgeable about the local culture, which increases their respect for you.” • U.S. expats can save a substantial amount of money by bargaining in the host country

  27. Expatriate Paradoxes • Bribery • The most common issue confronting expat managers when dealing with host-culture nationals • “U.S. managers are required by law to adhere to strict guidelines in the area of small gifts, which are allowed, and major bribes, which are not.” • Competing for Business • European and Asian multinationals are legally free to offer major bribes • This puts U.S. companies at a perceived disadvantage

  28. Expatriate Paradoxes • Paradox 5.11: How can the expat manager be simultaneously at home anywhere in the world and fit comfortably nowhere? • “A common experience among expats is the feeling of being at home anywhere in the world yet not being completely comfortable anywhere.” • Some expats remain as permanent residents for the rest of their lives • Even though, they will never be completely accepted in the host culture • Many expats grow so comfortable in the host culture that they become uneasy when returning to their home cultures

  29. Expatriate Paradoxes • “Global firms tend to require 5-10 years’ experience outside of the home culture for those competing for senior and top management positions.” • The globalized world is now borderless with few boundaries • Firms are now representing their home cultures while also representing the global cultures in which they operate • The expat may feel at home anywhere but fit in nowhere • This is problematic for those seeking a sense of stability and community

  30. Understanding Cross-Cultural Interactions via Cultural Sensemaking • It is helpful to understand ethical systems of the host culture • Joyce Osland and Allan Bird developed a model for understanding cross-cultural communications • Framing (Structuring) Situations • Making Attributions • Selecting a Script

  31. Reentry into Home Culture • Most expats return home • Many find they have given up some of their values, and strengthened others • Others at home do not identify with experiences and may not receive new ideas well • Reacclimatization of the expat’s spouse and children can be difficult • In the long run, the expat experience will probably prove beneficial