IPv6 and Packet Tracer Jim Bergquist email@example.com Lakes Country Service Cooperative Karen Alderson firstname.lastname@example.org Networking Academy Technical Advocacy
Purpose of This Session Scope of this session Topics sufficient to give students and instructors a basic knowledge of how IPv6 works Demos, with Packet Tracer files and lab activities Links to resources that cover more IPv6 topics To provide a working knowledge to instructors and students for building and troubleshooting simple IPv6 networks
Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space Assign one IPv6 address per grain of sand How many grains of sand would be needed to use all IPv6 addresses? Fill Earth-sized containers with the sand 128 bit addresses 2 128 is a very large number Fill here Hollow Earth-sized container Sand Grain IPv6 address 2009:1:3:4EFF:2C:16BA:3D:B012/112 Earth drawing credit: http://flickr.com/photos/ontdesign/ http://search.creativecommons.org/
Visualizing the IPv6 Address Space The Earth-sized containers would make 20 circles around the outer orbit of our solar system (Pluto) Our Solar System Blue dots are Earth- sized containers Based on image from public image gallery at http://www.eso.org/
IPv6 Address Format and Types of Addresses More information is available in the referenced resources
What IPv6 Addresses Look Like 128 bits are separated into eight blocks of 16 bits Each 16-bit block is represented in hex and delimited with colons: 2001:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A In each 16-bit block, leading zeros may be removed: 2001:00D3:0000:2F00:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A 2001:D3:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A
Zero Compression (or Shortform) Consecutive 16-bit blocks of zeroes can be replaced with a double-colon (::) FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 can be compressed to FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 The multicast address FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 can be compressed to FF02::2 Zero compression can only be used once in a given address Otherwise, you could not determine the number of 0 bits represented by each double-colon instance
Teaching Tip If students have trouble seeing why only one double colon is allowed, give them an example of what would happen if you allowed it. The following two addresses could both be shortened to the third address, so there would be ambiguity 2001:0:0:0:355:0:0:7 2001:0:0:355:0:0:0:7 2001::355::7 NOT ALLOWED
IPv6 Address Prefix Length An address prefix is indicated by the prefix length following a “/” at the end of the address. Example: 2001:DB8:0:2F00:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A/64 The prefix length (number of upper bits) is 64 This means the lower 64 bits are used for hosts It is used the same way as CIDR in IPv4 Subnet masks are not used in IPv6
Teaching Tips To remove the mystery from numbers like B and D3A To see why 32 hex digits represents 128 binary bits To understand where the network and host portion are, using a classless designation, “/” To understand how stateless autoconfiguration is done Why emphasize hexadecimal and hex-to-binary conversion? Fortunately, hex-to-binary conversion is easy Consider having students memorize the binary equivalent of the 16 hex digits
Fun Teaching Facts The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will allocate from 2001::/16 for the time being http://www.zytrax.com/tech/protocols/ipv6.html#global Addresses within 2001:db8::/32 are non-routable and should be used in examples given in documentation for networking scenarios or tutorials http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6 Windows 7 Server, when it is released, will have powerful VPN capabilities. IPv6 needs to be deployed http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9118322
Types of IPv6 Addresses Unicast (one to one) Multicast (one to many) Anycast (one to “nearest,” according to a metric) No broadcasts in IPv6 Unicast addresses will be used in this session See additional resources for other definitions See a description of address types
Unicast IPv6 Addresses Differentiated by their scope, as follows: Link-local addresses—only on single link, not routed FE80 prefix Unique-local addresses—routed only within private network FC00 prefix Global unicast addresses—globally routable 2001 prefix currently being issued Global addresses use a 64 bit host portion
IPv6 Address Assignment Manually (static) Stateless auto-configuration IPv6 dhcp (Stateful autoconfiguration) Link-local addresses are configured automatically No arp in IPv6. It is replaced by Neighbor Discovery (ND) Addresses can be assigned in these ways
IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration Host automatically configures its own link-local address With link-local address, a host discovers connected routers to obtain a global prefix A host then builds its own global unicast address See the provided Activity: Build an IPv6 EUI-64 address.doc
Stateless Autoconfiguration DHCPv6 is not required
Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing Router(config)#int fa0/1 Router(config-if)#ipv6 addr 2001:db8::/64 eui-64 Router(config-if)#ipv6 enable Router(config-if)#no shut Stateless Autoconfiguration Only the network part of the address is supplied in the ipv6 address command Because 2001:db8:: ends with “::”, it is not an address. The rest of the address is supplied by the eui-64 process. eui stands for “extended unique identifier”
Stateless Autoconfiguration Router’s fa0/1 interface generates its link-local address and global unicast address Router#sho ipv6 int bri FastEthernet0/0 [administratively down/down] FastEthernet0/1 [up/up] FE80::201:42FF:FE44:3C02 2001:DB8::201:42FF:FE44:3C02
Stateless Autoconfiguration On PC’s Config tab, go to Global Settings and select Auto Config button to acquire Gateway address. Note: It is the link-local address of the router’s fa0/1 (It begins with FE80) Packet Tracer PCs support this
Stateless Autoconfiguration Select FastEthernet to check if it is set to Auto Config, and has its link-local address and an EUI address. Packet Tracer PC Packet Tracer PC line command to obtain both interface and default gateway addresses: PC> ipv6config autoconfig
Commands for Students to Compare show ip interface brief show ipv6 interface brief show ip route show ipv6 route show ip protocols show ipv6 protocols Differences in RIP and IPv6 RIP (RIPng) (see example in this presentation) Differences in OSPF and IPv6 OSPF (OSPFv3) (see example in this presentation)
Ping Command for IPv6 In Cisco routers, it is ping In Packet Tracer routers, it is ping In Packet Tracer PCs, it is ping In Windows XP, it is ping6 • Note: • With PT PCs, if you type an IPv6 address incorrectly, for example with a semicolon, ping will become unresponsive • Windows XP will report “Host not found”
Packet Tracer ipv6config Command Used in Packet Tracer PCs. Similar to ipconfig In Windows XP: C:\ ipv6 install install the protocol stack C:\ ipconfig display IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
Demo: IPv6 RIP(RIPng) RIPng (“Next Generation”) is a name used to describe IPv6 RIP
Connectivity Using IPv6 RIP Static addresses are used between routers. Stateless autoconfiguration is used for hosts.
Global Commands ipv6 unicast-routing (enable IPv6) ipv6 router rip CIRCUS (define a process called CIRCUS) Configure IPv6 RIP on each router Note: The global command ipv6 router rip CIRCUS will be automatically configured by the router when IPv6 RIP is configured on an interface (next slide)
Interface Commands- Static Address ipv6 enable ipv6 addr FC00:2::1/112 ipv6 rip CIRCUS enable no shut Note: The IPv4 RIP global network command is not used with IPv6 RIP Configure interconnecting interfaces on the two routers (example, on fa0/0 of Router1)
Interface Commands- Auto Config ipv6 enable ipv6 addr FC00:3::/64 eui-64 ipv6 rip CIRCUS enable no shut Note: Ensure that the PCs are set for Auto Config in the Config Tab Note: The process name CIRCUS is user-defined and is local to the router. You can use a different process name on a neighboring router Configure the router LAN interfaces and the PCs with Auto Config (example, on fa0/1 of Router1)
Ping from PC1 to PC0 Note: The colon, “:” following the address is merely part of the ping output
Demo or Lab: IPv6 OSPF(OSPFv3) Packet Tracer files and labs are included with the conference materials
Configuring OSPF for IPv6 Based on CCNP- BSI Lab 8-1 Ping Here
Enable IPv6 Routing R2(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing A global command
Configure Loopback Addresses R1(config)# interface loopback0 R1(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address FC00::1:1/112 Needed for OSPFv3 Note: Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are needed on the Loopback interfaces
Configure Serial Addresses R1(config)# interface serial0/0/0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address FC00::12:1/112 R1(config-if)# clockrate 64000 R1(config-if)# no shutdown Use static addressing Note: The ipv6 enable command is unnecessary if you configure an address on an interface
Configure EUI addresses R2(config)# interface fastethernet0/0 R2(config-if)# ipv6 address FC00:23::/64 eui-64 R2(config-if)# no shutdown Configure the router FastEthernet interfaces Note: Stateless Autoconfiguration works between two routers or between a router and a host
Enable OSPFv3 R2(config)#interface loopback0 R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 R2(config-if)#interface serial0/0/0 R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 R2(config-if)#interface fastethernet0/0 R2(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 Enable on all interfaces, including Loopback
Verify the Configuration From host PC0 PC>ping FC00::12:1 From router R1 R1#show ipv6 ospf neighbor R1#show ipv6 route R1#show ipv6 ospf interface R1#show ipv6 protocol R1#show ipv6 ospf database R1#show run Use these commands to verify the configuration and to examine tables
ICMPv6 Packet Type Numbers You can look at packet details with Packet Tracer Also see included Activity: Comparing ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Packet Type numbers.doc
Some ICMPv6 Type Numbers Router Advertisement(Neighbor Discovery)- 134 Specific to IPv6 Sent periodically to neighbors v6 Echo Request (ping)- 128 Compare with v4: Type 8 v6 Echo Reply (ping)- 129 Compare with v4: Type 0 Activity: Use Packet Tracer in Simulation mode Click a packet to see type number Type 134
Broken Network Example Let’s fix it!
This Network has a Problem Uses IPv6 RIP Static IPv6 addresses between routers Stateless autoconfiguration for hosts What IPv6 address is assigned to each PC?
This Network has a Problem A. sho ipv6 protocol on Routers 1 and 2 B. sho ipv6 route on Routers 1 and 2 C. sho ipv6 int brief on Routers 1 and 2 D. ping from PC1 to PC0 inSimulation mode Problem is in Router1 or Router2 What do you think we should do first?
This Network has a Problem What should we do next? A. sho run on Routers 1 and 2 B. sho ipv6 route on Routers 1 and 2 C. sho ipv6 int brief on Routers 1 and 2 D. sho ipv6 rip database on Routers 1 and 2
This Network has a Problem Which of these is the problem? A. Missing RIP enable command on an interface B. Missing IPv6 address on a serial interface C. ipv6 rip is not enabled globally on a router D. Clock not set on a serial DCE interface
Another Broken Network Example Let’s fix this one, too!
This Network has a Problem Problem is in Router0 or Router1
This Network has a Problem A. sho ipv6 protocol on Routers 0 and 1 B. sho ipv6 route on Routers 0 and 1 C. sho ipv6 int brief on Routers 0 and 1 D. ping from PC1 to PC0 in Simulation mode What should we do first?
This Network has a Problem What should we do next? A. sho run on Routers 0 and 1 B. sho ipv6 route on Routers 0 and 1 C. sho ipv6 int brief on Routers 0 and 1 D. sho ipv6 rip database on Routers 0 and 1