# Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -15 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -15

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Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -15

## Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -15

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1. Virtual University ENG 101Lesson -15 Dr.Surriya Shaffi Mir

2. Lesson 15 Interpreting Visual Data In today’s lesson we will first deal with interpreting visual data and second how to make comparisons. We will show you some means of communications which are primarily visual. Among these means are: graphs, charts, diagrams, tables, and maps. Most textbooks include tables, graphs and maps, etc. They are all aids to help you understand interpret the material you are reading.

3. Because of the importance of visuals, and the possibility of their being misinterpreted, you will see: i) how words and figures can be converted into visuals of one kind or another, and ii) learn to read accurately these common aids. The following example shows you how information consisting of words and figures can be converted into a visual.

4. Our experience is that after listening to an hour’s lecture, students begin very rapidly to forget the information given to them. Twenty-four hours after the lecture, most of the students will have forgotten 75% of the information. After forty-eight hours, the amount the students remember has usually sunk to 15%. Yet if the students review the information by noting the key points in the first place and then reading over or discussing or using their notes, the retention levels are as high as 70-85%. Here you have been presented findings in words and numerals. Let’s put these findings into graph form, so that you can ‘see’ them better.

5. Tables: The purpose of a table is to give the reader numerical information at a glance. They are used to show various kinds of information in clear, compact columns. You are all familiar with a time table. You had one in your school and college – it was a plan of the whole week – how classes were scheduled. In the same way you are familiar with airline and train time tables or schedules. You are also familiar with tables in mathematics, physics, or chemistry. Tables are useful for quick reference, but they require careful reading.

6. When you read a table. • (i) Read the title of the table first: that will tell you what information, is shown in that table. • Always look at the footnote given at the end or bottom of the table. It will explain or give additional information that is necessary for an accurate interpretation of the data • iii) Next you must ask yourself if the information given in the table is reliable. For this you must check the source of information in the table.

7. After that look at the heading of each column. Be sure you understand exactly what each heading refers to what is included in each column. Also notice the units that are used. These could be in terms of numbers, money, weights, percentages, dates, sex, etc… The units may also vary from column to column. • Finally, you must read the figures carefully and interpret them accurately. • Now look at the following table taken from R.C. Yorkey ‘Study Skills for Students of English’ p. 173. and answer the ten questions that follow by writing true (T) or false (F).

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9. 1. This table refers to the percentage of the total United States population. 2. Judging form the table, the annual death rate has been reduced by slightly less than half since 1900. 3. Heart disease has consistently been the major cause of death. 4. The death rate for infants in 1977 was 10.7 percent. 5. Typhoid fever has been completely eliminated as a cause of death

10. 1. This table refers to the percentage of the total United States population. 2. Judging form the table, the annual death rate has been reduced by slightly less than half since 1900. 3. Heart disease has consistently been the major cause of death. 4. The death rate for infants in 1977 was 10.7 percent. 5. Typhoid fever has been completely eliminated as a cause of death F T T T F

11. 6.Since 1940 the annual death rate for automobile accidents has remained about the same. 7. The reduction in deaths since 1900 has been greater for tuberculosis than for pneumonia. 8. The annual death rate for cancer was bout 2½ times greater in 1977 than in 1900. 9. The most serious childhood disease in the first part of the twentieth century apparently was typhoid fever. 10. The abbreviation n.a. means “Not Applicable.”

12. 6. Since 1940 the annual death rate for automobile accidents has remained about the same. 7. The reduction in deaths since 1900 has been greater for tuberculosis than for pneumonia. 8. The annual death rate for cancer was bout 2½ times greater in 1977 than in 1900. 9. The most serious childhood disease in the first part of the twentieth century apparently was typhoid fever. 10. The abbreviation n.a. means “Not Applicable.” T T T T t

13. Another way of showing information is through graphs. A graph illustrates a relationship between at least two things, one of which is measured on a vertical axis, and the other(s) on a horizontal axis. Look the following graph taken from R.C. Yorkey ‘Study Skills for Students of English’ p. 177. and answer the questions that follow.

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15. Answer the first five following questions by writing true of false and the last five by writing the information. 1. Specific years are indicated on the vertical axis. 2. The legend (explanatory words on a graph, map, etc…) shows how many men finished elementary school, high school, and college. 3. The mean income of high school graduates is consistently higher than that of elementary school graduates. 4. College graduates earn the highest income.

16. Answer the first five following questions by writing true of false and the last five by writing the information. 1. Specific years are indicated on the vertical axis. 2. The legend (explanatory words on a graph, map, etc…) shows how many men finished elementary school, high school, and college. 3. The mean income of high school graduates is consistently higher than that of elementary school graduates. 4. College graduates exam the highest income. F F T T

17. 5. This graph shows that female college graduates earn more money than male high school graduates. 6. In 1956, the difference in mean income of elementary school and high school graduates was _____________. 7. In 1976, this difference became about ________________. 8. In 1961, a college graduate earned a mean income of about _______________.

18. 5. This graph shows that female college graduates earn more money than male high school graduates. 6. In 1956, the difference in mean income of elementary school and high school graduates was _____________. 7. In 1976, this difference became about ________________. 8. In 1961, a college graduate earned a mean income of about _______________. F 1250 dollars 1720 10,000

19. 9. The mean income of a college graduate in 1966 was about _________________. 10. In the years between 1961 and 1976 about how much did the income of college students increase?

20. 9. The mean income of a college graduate in 1966 was about _________________. 10. In the years between 1961 and 1976 about how much did the income of college students increase? _______________. 12,000 6500

21. Bar Graphs A bar graph is similar to a line graph except that the bars (extending from either the vertical or the horizontal axis) are used instead of dots and lines. Look at the following bar graph which is taken from R.C.Yorkey p. 178. and which gives data from the world Almanac, 1979, and then answer the questions that follow.

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23. Answer the following questions by writing true or false 1. This graph shows the number of speakers of all the important languages of the world. 2. The number of speakers is shown on the vertical axis. 3. The number of speakers is indicated in millions. e.g, 100 means 100,000,000. 4. There are twice as many speakers of English as of French 5. Two languages are spoken by more than 300 million speakers.

24. Answer the following questions by writing true or false 1. This graph shows the number of speakers of all the important languages of the world. 2. The number of speakers is shown on the vertical axis. 3. The number of speakers is indicated in millions. e.g, 100 means 100,000,000. 4. There are twice as many speakers of English as of French 5. Two languages are spoken by more than 300 million speakers. T F T F T

25. Answer the following questions by writing on the lines provided. • About how many native speakers of English are there in the world?_______________________ . • What languages have about as many speakers as Arabic?_________________________________. • What dialect of Chinese has the most speakers?__ • There are about twice as many speakers of Hindi as of ___________________________________. • 10. Which language ranks fifth in total number of speakers? _______________________________.

26. Answer the following questions by writing on the lines provided. 6. About how many native speakers of English are there in the world?_______________________ . 7. What languages have about as many speakers as Arabic?_________________________________. 8. What dialect of Chinese has the most speakers?____ 9. There are about twice as many speakers of Hindi as of ___________________________________. 10. Which language ranks fifth in total number of speakers? _______________________________. 370,000,000 German & Portuguese Mandarin Malay-Indonesian Urdu

27. 1. Japan is composed of four major islands. The biggest island is Honshu. What are the names of the other there? __________________________________ Which island is northernmost?_____southernmost?__ 2. Japan is surrounded by an ocean and three seas. Name the ocean _________. Name the seas_______. Which sea is to the west of Japan?________ to the southeast?________________ 3. What is the country nearest to Japan?__________ How far is it form Japan?__________

28. 1. Japan is composed of four major islands. The biggest island is Honshu. What are the names of the other there? __________________________________ Which island is northernmost?______________ southernmost?_____________ 2. Japan is surrounded by an ocean and three seas. Name the ocean _________. Name the seas_______________________________________. Which sea is to the west of Japan?______________ to the southeast?________________ 3. What is the country nearest to Japan?__________ How far is it form Japan?______________ Kyushu, Shikoku, Hokkaido Hokkaido Kyushu Pacific Philippines Sea, Sea of Japan, East China Sea, Sea of Japan Philippines Sea South Korea Approx. 150 km

29. 4. What other countries are close to Japan?____ Approximately how far the these countries from Japan? ____________________________________________ What direction are they form Tokyo?____________ 5. How far is the island of Hokkaido from the Soviet Union? ______________ Which direction is Hokkaido from Russia?____Which direction is Hokkaido from Korea?________ On Hokkaido, name one city that is due west of Kushiro: _____________ and one that is due north of Hakodate:__________________

30. 4. What other countries are close to Japan?_____________________________ Approximately how far the these countries from Japan? ____________________________________________ What direction are they form Tokyo?____________ 5. How far is the island of Hokkaido from the Soviet Union? ______________ Which direction is Hokkaido from Russia?____Which direction is Hokkaido from Korea?________ On Hokkaido, name one city that is due west of Kushiro: _____________ and one that is due north of Hakodate:__________________ Russia, North Korea Closest: NK - 400 Km, Russia 300 Km East Approx. 300 Km West North West Sapporo Sapporo

31. 6. How many cities in Japan have a population of 1.000.000 or more?_______What are their names?__________________. How do you know which ones they are?________ • 7.Approximately how far is Nagoya from Tokyo? _________________. Nagoya is to the________ of Tokyo and to the____________ of Osaka. • 8. The latitude of Kyoto is 35. What is the longitude? _________

32. 6. How many cities in Japan have a population of 1.000.000 or more?____________What are their names?______________________________. How do you know which ones they are?_____________________________ • 7.Approximately how far is Nagoya from Tokyo? _________________. Nagoya is to the east of Tokyo and to the____________ of Osaka. • 8. The latitude of Kyoto is 35. What is the longitude? _________ 6 Osaka, Tokayo Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Yokohama Capitalized 390 Km North East 135

33. 9. What are the latitude and longitude of the northern tip of the island of Hokkaido?________ 10. Approximately how far is it from the southern tip of Kyushu to the northern tip of Hokkaido? ____________. Mutsu Bay is at the __________ tip of Honshu. The city of Nagasaki is at the ________________________ tip of Kyushu.

34. 9.What are the latitude and longitude of the northern tip of the island of Hokkaido?_____________________ 10. Approximately how far is it form the southern tip of Kyushu to the northern tip of Hokkaido? ____________. Mutsu Bay is at the __________ tip of Honshu. The city of Nagasaki is at the ________________________ tip of Kyushu. 0 & 140 Approx. 1890 Km Northern Western

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36. A. Which continent/country is the largest producer of hardwood timber? B. Which continent/country products equal amounts of hardwood and softwood timber? C. What percentage of paper pulp is produced by countries other than North America, the USSR, Asia and Europe? D. Which continent/country produces approximately twice as much hardwood timber as North America, but only one seventh as much softwood? E. Which continent/country produces softwood timber, but no hardwood timber?

37. A. Which continent/country is the largest producer of hardwood timber? Asia B. Which continent/country products equal amounts of hardwood and softwood timber? Europe C. What percentage of paper pulp is produced by countries other than North America, the USSR, Asia and Europe? 1 % D. Which continent/country produces approximately twice as much hardwood timber as North America, but only one seventh as much softwood? Africa E. Which continent/country produces softwood timber, but no hardwood timber? USSR

38. True or False Study the charts again and say whether the following statements are True or False A. In Asia the production of softwood timber is more important than the production of hardwood timber. B. The largest produces three times as much paper pulp as Europe. C. Asia produces three times as much paper pulp as Europe.

39. True or False Study the charts again and say whether the following statements are True or False A. In Asia the production of softwood timber is more important than the production of hardwood timber. B. The largest produces three times as much paper pulp as Europe. C. Asia produces three times as much paper pulp as Europe. F F F

40. D. The producers of timber are shown on the vertical axis of the graph. E. The cubic metres of wood produced are indicated in millions; for example, 50 means 50,000,000 cubic metres.

41. D. The producers of timber are shown on the vertical axis of the graph. E. The cubic metres of wood produced are indicated in millions; for example, 50 means 50,000,000 cubic metres. T T

42. Now we will move on to the second half of the lesson where you will be learning to make comparisons.

43. Making Comparisons 1 Formation There are several ways of showing that similarities or differences exist between or amongst things. The regular comparative and superlative of descriptive words, whether these are adjectives or adverbs, are formed as follows:

44. 1. By adding the ending-er and -est to words of one syllable Examples ABSOLUTE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE Adjectives new newer newest old older oldest big bigger biggest Adverbs soon sooner soonest late later latest

45. 2. By placing the words more and most in front of words with three or more syllables Example ABSOLUTE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE Adjectives interesting more most interesting interesting convenient more most convenient convenient beautiful more most beautiful beautiful Adverbs easily more easily most easily carefully more carefully most carefully

46. 3. Words with t wo syllables may be like 1 or 2 above in that they will add the ending -er and -est if they and in -y or-ly, -ow, -le and -er. Most of the remaining words take more and most in front of them.

47. Example ABSOLUTE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE -y happy happier happiest funny funnier funniest -ly early earlier earliest friendly friendlier friendliest -ow shallow shallower shallowest narrow narrower narrowest -le able abler ablest gentle gentler gentlest -er clever cleverer cleverest

48. N.B. Two-syllable adverbs ending in -ly take more or most Example quickly more quickly most quickly slowly more slowly most slowly badly more badly most badly Example ABSOLUTE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE careful more careful most careful Remaining careless more careless most careless descriptive boring more boring most boring two- awful more awful most awful syllable complex more complex most complex words

49. 4. Some common two-syllable adjectives can have either type of formation. Example ABSOLUTE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE common commoner commonest more common most common handsome handsomer handsomest more handsome most handsome