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Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno , jtnh fpub Mei 2014 PowerPoint Presentation
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Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno , jtnh fpub Mei 2014

Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno , jtnh fpub Mei 2014

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Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno , jtnh fpub Mei 2014

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  1. LAHAN SEBAGAI SUMBERDAYA EKONOMI Bahankajian MK. STELA.smno, jtnhfpub Mei 2014

  2. LAND IS THE ECONOMIC RESOURCE Land is the economic resource encompassing natural resources found within a nation economy. This resource includes timber, land, fisheries, farms and other similar natural resources. Land is usually a limited resource for many economies. Although some natural resources, such as timber, food and animals, are renewable, the physical land is usually a fixed resource. Nations must carefully use their land resource by creating a mix of natural and industrial uses. Using land for industrial purposes allows nations to improve the production processes for turning natural resources into consumer goods. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  3. LAND….. land, In economics, the resource that encompasses the natural resources used in production. In classical economics, the three factors of production are land, labour, and capital. Land was considered to be the “original and inexhaustible gift of nature.” In modern economics, it is broadly defined to include all that nature provides, including minerals, forest products, and water and land resources. While many of these are renewable resources, no one considers them “inexhaustible.” The payment to land is called rent. Like land, its definition has been broadened over time to include payment to any productive resource with a relatively fixed supply. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  4. LAND QUALITY INDICATOR (LQI) Some generic indicators of land units that must be monitored, especially for: Condition of land resources, both positive and negative; Areas arising from different land uses; Rates of adaptation and adoption of recommended/suggested practices; Farm management practices; Yields and other outputs resulting from project interventions or other development; Rural development issues such as land tenure, population density; Water resources; Fisheries and aquaculture; Forest management; Land-soil nutrients. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  5. The holistic concept of Land (FAO ,1976; FAO, 1995) : "Land is a delineable area of the earth's terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near-surface climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and physical results of past and present human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, buildings, etc.).“ The functions of Land: Production function Biotic environmental function Climate-regulative function Hydrologic function Storage function Waste and pollution control function Living space function Archive or heritage function Connective space function. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  6. Land attributes, characteristics, properties and qualities (or limitations/ conditions): ATTRIBUTE, or variable, is a neutral, over-arching term for a single or compound aspect of the land; CHARACTERISTIC is an attribute which is easily noticed and which serves as a distinguishing element for different types of land; it may or may not have a practical meaning (e.g., soil colour or texture, or height of forest cover are characteristics without giving direct information on land quality); PROPERTY is an attribute that already gives a degree of information on the value of the land type; LAND QUALITY (or limitation) is a complex attribute of land which acts in a manner distinct from the actions of other land qualities in its influence on the suitability of land for a specified kind of use. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  7. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO PRODUCTIVITY FROM CROPS OR OTHER PLANT GROWTH Crop yields (a resultant of many qualities listed below). Moisture availability. Nutrient availability. Oxygen availability in the root zone. Adequacy of foothold for roots. Conditions for germination. Workability of the land (ease of cultivation). Salinity or sodicity. Soil toxicity. Resistance to soil erosion. Pests and diseases related to the land. Flooding hazard (including frequency, periods of inundation). Temperature regime. Radiation energy and photoperiod. Climatic hazards affecting plant growth (including wind, hail, frost). Air humidity as affecting plant growth. Drying periods for ripening of crops. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  8. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO DOMESTIC ANIMAL PRODUCTIVITY Productivity of grazing land. Climatic hardships affecting animals. Endemic pests and diseases. Nutritive value of grazing land. Toxicity of grazing land. Resistance to degradation of vegetation. Resistance to soil erosion under grazing conditions. Availability of drinking water. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  9. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO FOREST PRODUCTIVITY The qualities listed may refer to natural forests, forestry plantations, or both. Mean annual increments of timber species Types and quantities of indigenous timber species. Site factors affecting establishment of young trees. Pests and diseases. Fire hazard. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  10. FRAMEWORK FOR LAND EVALUATION OF 1976 LAND QUALITIES RELATED TO MANAGEMENT AND INPUTS The qualities listed may refer to arable use, animal production or forestry. Terrain factors affecting mechanization (trafficability). Terrain factors affecting construction and maintenance of access-roads (accessibility). Size of potential management units (e.g. forest blocks, farms, fields). Location in relation to markets and to supplies of inputs. FAO. 1976. A framework for land evaluation. Soils Bulletin 32, FAO, Rome. 72 p. Also, Publication 22, (R. Brinkman and A. Young (eds.), ILRI, Wageningen, The Netherlands. FAO. 1995. Planning for sustainable use of land resources: towards a new approach, W.G. Sombroek and D. Sims. Land and Water Bulletin 2, FAO, Rome. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  11. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit LAND COVER QUALITIES Value of the standing vegetation as "crop", such as timber. Value of the standing vegetation as germ plasm: biodiversity value. Value of the standing vegetation as protection against degradation of soils and catchment. Value of the standing vegetation as regulator of local and regional climatic conditions. Regeneration capacity of the vegetation after complete removal. Value of the standing vegetation as shelter for crops and cattle against adverse atmospheric influences. Hindrance of vegetation at introduction of crops and pastures: the land "development" costs. Incidence of above-ground pests and vectors of diseases: health risks of humans and animals. ATMOSPHERIC QUALITIES Atmospheric moisture supply: rainfall, length of growing season, evaporation, dew formation. Atmospheric energy for photosynthesis: temperature, daylength, sunshine conditions. Atmospheric conditions for crop ripening, harvesting and land preparation: occurrence of dry spells. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  12. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit LAND SURFACE AND TERRAIN QUALITIES Surface receptivity as seedbed: the tilth condition. Surface treatability: the bearing capacity for cattle, machinery, etc. Surface limitations for the use of implements (stoniness, stickiness, etc.): the arability. Spatial regularity of soil and terrain pattern, determining size and shape of fields with a capacity for uniform management. Surface liability to deformation: the occurrence or hazard of wind and water erosion. Accessibility of the land: the degree of remoteness from means of transport. The presence of open freshwater bodies for use by humans, animals or fisheries. Surface water storage capacity of the terrain: the presence or potential of ponds, on-farm reservoirs, bunds, etc. Surface propensity to yield run-off water, for local water harvesting or downstream water supply. Accumulation position of the land: degree of fertility renewal or crop damaging by overflow or overblow. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  13. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit SOIL QUALITIES Physical soil fertility: the net moisture storage capacity in the rootable zone. Physical soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of waterlogging in the rootable zone (i.e. the absence of oxygen). Chemical soil fertility: the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical soil toxicity: salinity or salinization hazard; excess of exchangeable sodium. Biological soil fertility: the N-fixation capacity of the soil biomass; and its capacity for soil organic matter turnover. Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil-borne pests and diseases. Substratum (and soil profile) as source of construction materials. Substratum (and soil profile) as source of minerals. Biological soil toxicity: the presence or hazard of soil-borne pests and diseases. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  14. Land qualities related to vertical components of a natural land unit SUBSTRATUM OR UNDERGROUND QUALITIES Groundwater level and quality in relation to (irrigated) land use. Substratum potential for water storage (local use) and conductance (downstream use). Presence of unconfined freshwater aquifers. Substratum (and soil profile) suitability for foundation works (buildings, roads, canals, etc.) DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  15. LAND EVALUATION…. EVALUASI LAHAN Land evaluation is the process of assessment of land performance when used for specific purposes, involving the execution and interpretation of surveys and studies of land forms, soils, vegetation, climate and other aspects of land in order to identify and make a comparison of promising kinds of land use in terms applicable to the objectives of the evaluation. LUT A land utilization type (FAO, 1976) is a kind of land use described or defined in a higher degree of detail than that of a major kind of land use (such as rainfed agriculture or forestry), as an abstraction of actual land-use systems (which may be single, compound or multiple). DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  16. KETAHANAN LAHAN Some concepts of resilience of land and its productivity, comparing the situation in someindustrialized countries (A) with that of most developing countries (B). (Sombroek, 1993) KetahanansuatuLahan : The capacity of the land to recover quickly to former levels of productivity - or to resume the trend to increased productivity - after an adverse influence such as drought, floods, or human abandonment or mismanagement. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  17. MAJOR ISSUES OF LAND MANAGEMENT…. Decline in quality of soils as rooting environments; Erosion and loss of topsoil by wind and water; Loss of vegetation cover, including woody perennials; Acidification, soil fertility decline and plant nutrient depletion; Salinity and salinization, particularly in irrigated systems. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  18. Qualitative relationships between gradually increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, soil characteristics and medium-term processes in soils, and biomass or crop productivity. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  19. INDICATOR : Land condition change (Change in land qualities). The type OF INDICATORS: Physical soil condition; Diversity or density of vegetation cover; Thickness of topsoil (by erosion or, conversely, by good management); Salinity or sodicity (alkaline conditions); Terracing; Establishment of contour vegetation strips. Unit in which the indicator is measured: areal extent and magnitude of change of the indicator types , with improvement and deterioration reported separately. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  20. LAND QUALITY INDICATOR (LQI) I. Above the soil surface, as related with yields: Cover close to the ground: its density, distribution, duration, timing. Stress in plants: growth rates; timing and frequency of wilting; visible nutrient deficiencies or imbalances. II. On the soil surface, as affecting particularly soil moisture and runoff+erosion: Porosity of at least topsoil layers, in millimetric bands: proportions of incident rainfall becoming infiltrated; III. Below the soil surface: Organic matter content and biological activity, as affecting multiple features: Soil architecture: . structural stability; . gas exchange . water movement and retention/release; Cation exchange capacity: . nutrient capture and retention; . pH buffering; . nutrient availability; . source of small amounts of recycled nutrients. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  21. The five sets of LQIs for managed ecosystems (agriculture and forestry) : NUTRIENT BALANCE: describes nutrient stocks and flows as related to different land management systems used by farmers in specific AEZs and specific countries. YIELD TRENDS AND YIELD GAPS: describes current yields, yield trends and actual:potential farm-level yields for the major food crops in different countries. LAND USE INTENSITY: describes the impacts of agricultural intensification on land quality. Intensification may involve increased cropping, more value-added production, and increased amounts and frequency of inputs; emphasis is on the management practices adopted by farmers in the transition to intensification. LAND USE DIVERSITY (agrodiversity): describes the degree of diversification of production systems over the landscape, including livestock and agroforestry systems; it reflects the degree of flexibility (and resilience) of regional farming systems, and their capacity to absorb shocks and respond to opportunities. LAND COVER: describes the extent, duration and timing of vegetative cover on the land during major erosive periods of the year. It is a surrogate for erosion and, along with land use intensity and diversity, it will increase understanding on the issues of desertification. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  22. …SOIL PRODUCTIVITY. SOIL Fertility is the inherent capacity of a soil to supply nutrients in adequate amounts and suitable proportions, whereas soil productivity is a wider term referring to the ability of a soil to yield crops (Brady, 1974). The chief factors in soil productivity are soil organic matter (including microbial biomass), soil texture, structure, depth, nutrient content, water-storage capacity, reaction and absence of toxic elements. The soil productivity depends on physical, hydric, chemical and biologic characteristics and their interaction. Brady, N.C. 1974. The Nature and properties of soils. 8th Edition. Macmillan, New York. DiunduhdariSumber: 3/11/2012 .

  23. PRODUKTIVITAS LAHAN Land productivity measures the wealth generated on a piece of land. High land productivity translates into : Lower resource wastage, Improved production processes, Shorter turn-around time and, Greater cost-savings. DiunduhdariSumber: .................... 3/11/2012 .

  24. KUALITAS & SIFAT-CIRI, KARAKTERISTIK TANAH Soil quality is generally defined in terms of the capacity of a soil to perform specific functions in relation to human needs or purposes, including maintaining environmental quality and sustaining plant and animal production (Lal, 1998a). Soil quality, in turn, derives from a variety of particular physical, chemical, and biological properties that support these functions, including topsoil depth, texture, bulk density, and water-holding capacity; organic matter, pH level, and extractable nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and microbial biomass (Mausbach and Seybold, 1998). Some of these properties (e.g., pH, N, P, and K) are characterized by optimum levels; departures from these optima (in either direction) are associated with reduced soil quality. Other properties (e.g., topsoil depth and microbial biomass) contribute positively to soil quality at all levels, while some (e.g., bulk density) are inversely related to soil quality. In addition to soil properties, other characteristics also play a critical role in determining land quality, including aspects of terrain (such as slope) and climate (such as temperature and precipitation, and thus the length of growing period). Lal, R. 1998a. “Soil Erosion Impact on Agronomic Productivity and Environment Quality.” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 17(4): 319-464. Mausbach, M. J., and C. A. Seybold . 1998. “Assessment of Soil Quality.” In Soil Quality and Agricultural Sustainability, edited by Rattan Lal. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press. DiunduhdariSumber: 3/11/2012 .