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Implementing Differentiated Instruction

Implementing Differentiated Instruction

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Implementing Differentiated Instruction

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  1. Implementing Differentiated Instruction In the LANGUAGE! Classroom

  2. Why haven’t we implemented DifferentiatedInstruction before? • Lack of Instructional Time • Lack of materials • Need for Preplanning for Centers • Setting Expectations • Administrative Support

  3. Instructional time: The LANGUAGE! Program should have a 90 minute reading block allowing time for differentiated instruction. LANGUAGE! curriculum provides integrated materials and planning for differentiated instruction. Administrative support is enhanced through national and district research. The district will be providing continued workshops on differentiated instruction, model classrooms, literacy centers, and other research based instruction. Each of these stumbling blocks are being chipped away as LANGUAGE! is further implemented in Lee County.

  4. What does current research indicate regarding Differentiated Instruction?

  5. The Neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia The provision of extra time is therefore an essential accommodation; it allows them time to decode each word and apply their unimpaired higher order cognitive and linguistic skills to the surrounding context to get at the meaning of words that they cannot rapidly decode. Shaywitz, 2001

  6. Implications concerning Shaywitz’s findings… • Therefore, it is essential to differentiate to meet the needs of our students. • Research supports the need for differentiating instruction for underachievers. Struggling readers need something different…

  7. Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy “ A full 70 per cent of U.S. middle and high school students require differentiated instruction, which is instruction targeted to their individual strengths and weaknesses.” (Biancarosa & Snow)

  8. Torgeson’s Chart

  9. Implications of Torgeson’s findings… • Students in Reading Level 1 and 2 have a larger deficit in FLUENCY than in VERBAL KNOWLEDGE/REASONING.

  10. If we keep doing the same thing, we’ll keep getting the same results so…

  11. Teachers as Scientists • Students arrive in IR classes with a variety of assessments– how can this data be used to plan instruction in the L! classroom; the process is much like a scientist that problem solves.

  12. The purpose of assessment is… “provide teachers with data that they can use to adjust instruction to ensure that all students achieve maximum growth in reading. These tests help identify students who require “corrective instruction”, students who would from enrichment activities, and help teachers prevent minor difficulties from developing into major problems” (Guskey, 2003)

  13. The purpose of assessment is… “provide teachers with data that they can use to adjust instruction to ensure that all students achieve maximum growth in reading. These tests help identify students who require “corrective instruction”,students who would from enrichment activities, and help teachers prevent minor difficulties from developing into major problems” (Guskey, 2003)

  14. Why Do Content Mastery? • Content Mastery is an integral part of the Language! program. • Success with the L! program hinges on the consistent use and monitoring of the assessments. • Assessment information is essential to drive the day to day instructional success. • Helps identify and intervene with those students who are falling behind and/or do not show growth in the critical areas of literacy development.

  15. Content Mastery Tasks • Focuses on specific content covered in the unit • Measures new content and concepts taught • Offers students practice in a variety of testing formats such as multiple choice, recall/written response, spelling, and open-ended format

  16. Content Mastery provides data in three categories: • Instructional Effectiveness • Individual Students • Other Considerations

  17. Instructional Effectiveness • Provides teachers with a snapshot regarding the effectiveness of instruction • Informs teachers about areas that might need additional practice and modeling • Provides feedback about the pace of instruction

  18. Instructional Effectiveness • The percent of students achieving mastery over a designated period of time (9 weeks or semester) • The percent of students achieving mastery within a unit • What differentiated instruction is needed to ensure mastery for all students

  19. Consider how teacher and student behaviors affect Content Mastery scores?

  20. Points to Ponder When Analyzing Instructional Effectiveness • Were the Content Mastery tasks examined prior to instruction and administration? • Was the teacher knowledgeable about what mastery should look like? • Has the expected response been modeled for the students? • Was there opportunity for approximate steps of mastery prior to content mastery being administered?

  21. Needs of specific populations Needs of specific class periods (time of day/composition) Needs of specific levels (A-F) Student motivation Patterns of Attendance Parent Support Other Considerations Content Mastery can provide data regarding other considerations that may include:

  22. Points to Ponder When Analyzing Other Considerations • Are there additional interventions that can be implemented to support specific populations? • Are there viable reinforcers that can increase achievement for specific students? • Can other school personnel impact attendance for truant students? • How visable/involved is the administration in the Intensive Reading classes?

  23. The Road Map for Data Driven Instruction Content Mastery provides a roadmap by targeting students who need: • Re-teaching • Reinforcement • Acceleration To insure mastery for all students. }

  24. Administering, Recording and Interpreting Content Mastery Tasks

  25. Administering the Content Mastery • The Content Mastery tasks are incorporated into lessons 5, 9 and 10. • Directions for “how-to” administer specific tasks are incorporated in the unit lessons found throughout the Teacher Editions for Books A-F. • Students complete the Content Mastery tasks in their individual Assessment: Content Mastery booklets.

  26. Recording of Content Mastery Task Scores • Student scores should be recorded on the reproducible Content Mastery Class Roster in each level Assessment: Teacher Edition. • Teachers should prepare a roster for each unit of instruction.

  27. Content Mastery Task Class Roster

  28. Interpreting Content Mastery Results • Phonemic Awareness and Phonics • Word Recognition and Spelling • Vocabulary and Morphology • Grammar and Usage Content Mastery Tasks for Steps 1-4 require students to answer multiple choice and written spelling tasks in:

  29. What is Mastery for Steps 1-4? • Students who achieve 80% (4/5 correct or 8/10 correct on individual tasks)

  30. When students fall below the 80% mastery level… ● A Prescriptive Teaching Box follows every Content Mastery task at the point of use in the Teacher Edition.● These boxes guide teachers to reinforce or reteach based on performance. IF… Then… Students who score below 80%Reinforce: *Word Meanings: Use Sortegories, Unit 9 Categorize It, and Sort It: Word Meanings, Lesson 6, Step 3 Students who score at orReteach: Below 60%Word Meanings: Use Word Networks: Homophones, Unit 9 Lesson 3, Step 3, and Multiple Meaning Map, Lesson 5 Step 3.

  31. Reinforcement or Re-teaching? • Review and Acceleration appears at the beginning of every unit for students whose performance on assessment falls below the cutoff test scores. • Students can repeat these activities to review areas of weaknesses. • Special Instructional Support provides activities to customize teaching materials an provide opportunities for individualized instruction.

  32. L! Pacing Guide for School Year 2006-07

  33. Interpreting Content Mastery Steps 5 and 6 Content Mastery Tasks for Steps 5-6 require students to: • Interpretation types of questions • Use content from reading materials to write short answers to comprehension questions

  34. Teachers need to be very familiar with the scoring rubric in order to shape the students writing as they progress throughout the unit to meet the expectations on the Content Mastery tasks. • Teachers expectations need to encompass all previously taught concepts.

  35. Scoring on CM Tasks 5-6 The student’s overall score is based on the average rating of the five questions Ideas and Development • Organization • Voice and Audience Awareness • Word Choice • Sentence Fluency • Written Language Conventions

  36. Guidelines for Scoring Writing

  37. What is Mastery of CM Tasks 5-6? • Students should achieve an average of at least 4.0 (80%) on open ended questions. • When performance falls below a score of 4.0, those areas may need to be re-taught in subsequent units.

  38. Fluency Tasks Teachers need to be knowledgeable of the fluency expectations for each level of Language! • L! Book Grade Level Target # of Taught in Curriculum WCPM • A Grade 3 120 • B Grade 4 130 • C Grade 5 140 • D Grade 5 145 • E Grade 6 150 • F Grade 6-8 150-180

  39. Florida Oral Reading Fluency • Although the FORF has set grade level standards, the leveled LANGUAGE! fluency expectations may provide a more realistic number of words correct per minute for students who are achieving far below grade.

  40. Fluency Tasks • A wide range of fluency tasks are incorporated throughout every level. • Book A: letters-to-sounds-to-words-to-phrase-to-sentence fluency • Book B: passage fluency A time saving approach to evaluate progress is to record students’ performance on a limited set of results.

  41. Fluency Task Student Record Form • Fluency rates (WCPM) should be recorded on the reproducible Fluency Task Student Record Form in the Assessment: Teacher Edition booklet.

  42. Word Fluency Record

  43. Differentiating Fluency Goals Language! Assessment: Teachers Edition provides guidance on establishing individual goals for: • Students with severe reading difficulties • Repeated readings of texts

  44. Looking towards the Differentiated Classroom

  45. Planning for the Differentiated Lesson • First and foremost realize that a differentiated classroom doesn’t happen overnight • Start small—set achievable goals

  46. Teacher and Students • Learn new classroom routines • Use of new materials • Set new expectations: learning and behavior

  47. The FORES Questions For every differentiated lesson the teacher should be able to answer these five questions:

  48. F = First, are the materials and technology available? O = What is the objective of the lesson? R = How does the objective of the lesson relate to the students’ needs? E= Do the students know and understand the expectations of the lesson? S = Does the class schedule permit it?

  49. Look at a sample lesson from Book A • Let’s apply the FORES questions

  50. My students are new to sound counts. I want to reinforce this skill before going on. What can I do? Teacher