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  1. http://noyonews.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/a1.jpg

  2. ABALONE (Haliotis) Sandra Huynh Marine Aquaculture DISL 2012

  3. What is abalone? • Herbivorous marine gastropod • Over 70 species of extant haliotid species http://www.usc.edu/org/seagrant/Images/Abalone_CStevenson.jpg http://www.americanabalone.net/img/Abalone-400.jpg

  4. Abalone history in N. America • Native Americans-meat, trade material, and decoration • Commercial fishery in mid 19th century • Overfishing, disease, poaching, habitat destruction • Fisheries shut down

  5. Abalone history in N. America • 1980s- first commercial abalone farms in California http://www.fishtech.com/ThailandSymposium1.pdf

  6. Taxonomy • Haliotisspp http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf

  7. Taxonomy • Haliotisspp http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf

  8. Taxonomy http://aqua.ucdavis.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/ASAQ-A10.PDF

  9. Taxonomy http://aqua.ucdavis.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/ASAQ-A10.PDF

  10. Locations http://data.recfin.org/pub/kelp/no2/aquafac.gif

  11. Locations • Japan • Mexico • Australia • South Africa • Korea • New Zealand • Taiwan • China • Chile • Ireland • Iceland http://ww3.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101374/5/628x471.jpg

  12. Locations • Japan • Mexico • Australia • South Africa • Korea • New Zealand • Taiwan • China • Chile • Ireland • Iceland And of course, California!

  13. Market info California: In 1998 the total amount of abalone produced was approximately 73 metric tons (mt; in-shell weight) of product valued at US$2.4 million (Ebert 2001). http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf

  14. Pricing • High pricing in China, Japan, and Koreas • In 1994, prices to fishermen in California were $500-600 per dozen for the red abalone. “Abalone can fetch up to $20 per pound or more (Dave Ebert, pers. comm.).” http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf

  15. Life Cycle http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf

  16. Reproduction in captivity • Males and females induced to spawn • UV irradiated seawater • Solution of hydrogen peroxide • Release unfertilized eggs and sperm • 6-8 million ova out of 11 million ova released become fertilized (from one female!) • Fertilize, and division starts within 2 hrs

  17. Reproduction in captivity • Eggs hatched and reared through trochophore (16-20 hrs) and veliger (26-30 hrs) larval stages • All early life stages are sensitive, so UV- treated water is used. • Though increased temp can increase development, rearing at 15°C decreases risk of bacterial infection in systems.

  18. Production Methods • Cage culture system • Rectangular cages • PVC frames covered with heavy gage plastic mesh • Suspended from longline systems or floating docks http://ww1.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101372/5/628x471.jpg

  19. Production Methods • Disadvantages: • Costs for boat, • motor, • fuel, • access time, • and hydraulic wench to lift cages for feeding, maintenance, and harvest • And other things we’ve discussed in class http://ww3.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101370/5/628x471.jpg

  20. Production Methods • Land-based, flow-through tank system: • Concrete or fiberglass tanks of 1000-2000 capacity • Tanks plumbed for flow-through seawater and forced air http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/repository/calag/img5104p7a.jpg

  21. Production Methods • Disadvantages: • Operate seawater pumping • Aeration systems http://ww4.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101371/7/628x471.jpg http://ww4.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101375/5/628x471.jpg

  22. http://www.americanabalone.net/img/abalone256.jpg http://www.americanabalone.net/img/steaksLG.jpg

  23. Feeds and Feeding • Natural diets: • Eggs and larvae: yolk reserves • Juveniles: benthic microalgae (diatoms) • Adults: kelp • Artificial diets: • 30-50% protein: fish meal, milk by-products • 30-40% carbs: seaweed • 5-6% each of fat, fiber, and ash • Sometimes mineral and vitamin supplements

  24. Water Chemistry • Eggs and larvae: 15°C (59°F) • Juveniles: 15 to 18°C • Salinity: 30-35 ppt

  25. Advantages: • High densities • High production • 65% edible part is protein • Other nutrients: Selenium, magnesium, iron, and omega-3 fats http://ww2.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101373/5/628x471.jpg

  26. Disadvantages: • In both production systems, it takes 3-4 years for abalone to grow to market size, about 7-9 cm. • Growing to market size is the most capital intensive and time-consuming part of this aquaculture • Labor and feed costs • A lot of the animal is shell

  27. Sustainability http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf

  28. Nom nomnom http://thumbs.ifood.tv/files/images/editor/images/abalone%20ceviche.jpg http://ww2.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101369/5/628x471.jpg https://encrypted-tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTJiScvsjupcWedGctjL9D3kgTLBEX0MB1AtYNWbbh2msii7YOZ7A

  29. Jewelry http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_mISUD8AwDR8/S9paRtuqvUI/AAAAAAAABBo/0fpxxmXmfBI/s1600/NEW-Abalone+Heart+Pendant.jpg http://www.squidoo.com/abalone-jewelry

  30. Finally, if anyone finds this… http://www.mac-brush.com/images/OPI%20%20Nail%20polish/OPI%20%20Nail%20polish%20(76).jpg I will love you forever.

  31. References • “California Abalone Aquaculture” http://aqua.ucdavis.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/ASAQ-A10.PDF • “Seafood Watch: Cultured Abalone” http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf • “World abalone supply, markets, and pricing” http://www.fishtech.com/ThailandSymposium1.pdf • “Training Manual on Artificial Breeding of Abalone in Korea DPR” http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/ab731e/ab731e00.htm • “Abalone Farming” http://www.americanabalone.net/about-abalone.html

  32. Picture sources • Abalone background picture http://noyonews.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/a1.jpg • “Abalone’s luster grows” http://www.sfgate.com/recipes/article/Abalone-s-luster-grows-Eco-friendly-aquaculture-2614648.php#photo-2101372