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Presentation onWater Sector Development in Sindh: A case of Irrigation ReformsSANA Silver Jubilee ConventionSt. Louis, MOJuly 2009By:Nazeer Essaninazeeressani@email@example.comHome: +92 22 2656377 Cell: + 92 300 301 3385
Outline of Presentation • Chronological History and Basic Facts • Wake up Call • Blessing of Federal Government • Constraints and Distribution Inequities • The Politics of Direct Outlets • Transparency and Corruption • Current development Budget and Projects • Irrigation Reforms • Proposals- The Way Forward
Indus River, Sindu- from Tibet to Thatta • Basic Facts • - 21st largest river in the World with regard to Annual flow • 3180 km long • Crossing China, India, Pakistan • Watershed 1165000 sq KM • merge to Arabian Sea near Thatta • Lifeline to Pak and Sindh economy and livelihood
Irrigation Infrastructure Development in Sindh • Irrigation in Sindh has a history of several thousand years • Indus River is flowing since millions of years. It is mentioned in Vedas (Rigveda) - oldest book of Hindu Civilization • The Indus civilization is the richest and one of the oldest in the world • Irrigation canal systems were extended and improved during the late 1800s • A major program for improvement and construction of new inundations canals was undertaken in the later half of the nineteenth century. • Construction of barrages was started in 1924. • Barrage commanded irrigation was introduced with the construction of Sukkur Barrage system in 1932 commanding a gross area of some eight million acres on the left bank of the River Indus. • Kotri Barrage and Guddu Barrage were completed in 1955 and 1962 respectively.
Schematic Diagram of Canal Systems in Sindh Desert Pat Feeder Guddu Barrage Max: 1199672 cs 15 August 1976 13275 cusecs Begari Sindh Feeder Ghotki Feeder 14764 cusecs 8490 cusecs N.W Canal, 9450 cs Sukkur Barrage Max:1166574 cs 15 August 1976 Rice Canal, 10658 cs Dadu Canal, 5200 cs Nara Canal, 13650 cs Rohri Canal, 14100 cs SIDA Admin Control Canal Khairpur East Canal, 2094 cs Khairpur West Canal 1940 cs Kotri Barrage Max:980329 cs 14 August 1976 Kalri Baigar Feeder, 9100 cs Akram Wah 3100 cs Fuleli Canal, 14860 cs Pinyari Feeder, 13636 cs Arabian Sea
Sindh at Glance • Third largest Province of Pakistan • Covers an area of 140,935 Sq. Km. (18% of the country’s geography) • Sindh From south to North 580 km and breadth is 275-440 km from east to west. Provides sea port to country, Coast 350 km • Indus Delta 250 sq km • Population is approx 35 million (23% of the total population of the country). The women share in Sindh population is 48% - (fig may vary as per next census planned in 2009) • Urban population 49%, Rural 51% • Most of the rains fall between July and September during southwest monsoons. • Rainfall is the only source of moisture for areas other than those irrigated. Two crop seasons : Rabi (Winter), Kharif (Summer). • Major crops are: Wheat, Sugarcane, Rice and Cotton
Water Network in Sindh • Total gross command area (GCA) is 14.391 million acres • Barrages: 03 • Main Canals: 14 • branch canals, distributaries and minors: 1462 • WCs: 42000 • More than 95% of the irrigation is from canal water. • The system runs 13234 miles in form of main canals, branch canals, distributor canals and minor canals. • Approx 80% of the area is underlain by saline groundwater • Apart from irrigation system, Sindh has drainage system which as such is not contiguous and integrated. There are 13 existing surface drainage systems in Sindh, which serve a total area of over 6.2 Million acres (2.5 M ha) and have an aggregate length of about 2,981 miles (4,800 Km). • In addition there are two sub-surface drainage systems, which serve an area of 0.10 Million acres (0.04 M ha).
Poverty in Sindh • The index of Poverty in Sindh is high, in rural Sindh it is deep and alarming. • About 37% population lives below the poverty line compared to 33% in Pakistan on an overall basis. • Over 70% of the rural population is landless. • Rural households, including the landless, derive 56% of their income from agriculture, directly or indirectly. • The rural poor tend to be employed mostly as agri. wage workers. • The concentration of poor is the highest among categories of households where the head is an unpaid family worker, sharecropper, or owner-cultivator owning less than 2 hectares of land.. • Rural Sindh is highly dependent on public services with little role of the private sector. • Women in Rural Sindh is acutely disadvantaged and bear a disproportionately high share of the burden of poverty.
Blessing of Federal Government • No substantial support and infrastructure development in Sindh- promoting only WAPDA instead provincial irrigation and power department- no power…only irrigation • Poorly and ineffective projects development- LBOD, Chotiary Reservoir- immature handing over • Indirectly keeping federating units away from developing their own Water Vision and Water Policy • Federally prepared National Water Policy and Water Visions- faulty, not acceptable and do not address inter provincial water conflict and environmental, social, poverty and sea water intrusion issues • Net Result: Poverty in Rural Sindh 53% compared to 33% for overall Pakistan and 37% for Sindh
AREA Presently Irrigated Areas Ongoing Schemes Sindh 6.5 MA 1.0 MA Punjab 33.4 MA 1.5 MA NWFP 2.3 MA 0.5 MA Balochistan 2.2 MA 0.8 MA TOTAL 44.4 MA 3.8 MA PRESENTLY IRRIGATED AREAS AND PROPOSED WATER PROJECTS NWFP Disputed Territory PUNJAB BALOCHISTAN SINDH
Sindh in Irrigated Agriculture • Water is lifeline of Sindh and Sindhis • Sindh’s contribution in Pakistan’s Agriculture GDP is approx 30% mainly through • Wheat 15% • Cotton 23% • Livestock 28% • Sugarcane 31% • Rice 42% • Marine fish 70% In return: no recognition and water assurance to Sindh as per Accord
Water Allocation Province-wise Indus Water Accord 1991 (Total Allocation = 114.35 MAF)
Volumetric Distribution for Sindh Total Allocation (48.76 MAF) Volume of Water (MAF) Source: RBMP Studies Vol. 1 & IPD Sindh
Water Resource Constraints.. • Climate in Sindh is Arid and Hot • Minimal rainfall – 140 mm annually • Approx half of Sindh is non canal Command- only rain fed • Shortage and less supply of Water from River- Violation of Water Accord • 85% of Indus river flow occur during 90-120 days (June-Sept) • 6.5 to 8.0 MAF Water losses between Sukkur to Kotri Barrage • Disposal of saline drainage water and waste into river & fresh water canals- urban waste (Hyd, Suk) • 80% of the irrigated land in Sindh is underlain with saline and brackish underground water- not fit for agriculture • Sea water intrusion encroached upto 35 km affecting 0.6 million ha of land
Water Resource Constraints.. • No storage facility in Sindh except chotiary reservoir (0.7 MAF) which runs lower than capacity • 10 declared wetlands of international importance (Ramsar Sites)- not enough water to feed them through regular supply, seepage or rain- major environmental threat • Indus River Below Kotri is DRY • Urban water consumer growing fast- Karachi takes 1200 cusecs • By 2025 Sindh requires additional 25 MAF to meet agriculture and non agriculture demand • Sindh needs water for Development of Thar Coal- major challenge
Water Resource Constraints • Sindh canal command is 5.1 million ha. 1.3 million ha is cultivable waste- could be brought under irrigation if water were available. • 50% of total Sindh Canal Command has no drainage facility- result: 32% irrigated area is saline and 43% waterlogged. Badin/ Thatta 80% + • Punjab and Balochistan Drainage effluent- water quality threat to Indus from upper Riparian • 2135 km is flood protective embankment-bund. Heavy flood can bring disaster • Indus provides uninterrupted supply of water to Karachi Metropolis- 100 miles transportation- no major revenue/ recovery • Irrigation System efficiency reduced to approx. 30%
Transparency and Corruption… • Corruption influences the governance of water. The cost is distributed among individuals, society and environment. • Poor people are particularly affected as corruption undermines their livelihood and divert investment that would otherwise benefit them • Corruption drains water sector by reducing water access levels, discouraging investment and economic growth, undermining democratic principles, and increasing the strain on eco-system level. • Public procurement system can not stop Low quality projects with highly inflated cost….. • World Bank estimates 30% to 40% overall in third world like Pakistan for water projects
Distribution Inequities… • Externally, Sindh is already deprived of the share from Indus • Poor, tail end and small farmer, women, peasant is most vulnerable • Rural and urban elites have switched land to fish farms- taking more water than allocated • Theft and tempering is very common • Illegal pumping machines and cuts are common- no checks and control • The culture of fish farms, hunting lakes has become fashion with so called rural and urban elites… • Colonial mannerisms have not been lost. • Colonial power sector still operative in allocation of assets….
The Politics of Direct Outlets (DOs) • DOs form a serious constraint to judicious water distribution- it is like giving road access to a single home from free way of California • Only powerful elite group can get it sanctioned • Approx. 20-30% of irrigated command is served by Dos, especially in Nara Canal • It forms major constraint in distribution equities as practically, Dos do not come under rotation
Sindh Dev. Budget: 2009-10PKR 113 Billion Irrigation/Water Resource: PKR 5.00 billion • Rehabilitation of Channels: PKR 1.25 billion • RBOD: PKR 3.50 billion • Lining of Minors/Distris: PKR 1.00 billion • Rice Canal Lining: Larkana City • Small Dams Development: Other portfolio in Sindh Police: PKR 24.00 billion Karachi City: PKR 20.00 billion Hyderabad City: PKR 06.00 billion
Irrigation Service Management Challenge- a socio econ. aspect • The poor water management service directly affects socio-economic condition of the people of Sindh province especially rural people who have direct stake in water-the main source of their livelihood. • The index of Poverty in rural Sindh is deep and alarming. About 37% population lives below the poverty line compared to 33% in Pakistan on an overall basis. • Over 70% of the rural population is landless. Rural households, including the landless, derive 56% of their income from agriculture, directly or indirectly.
SIDA -AWBs Status in Sindh TOTAL SIDA Barrages 3 0 GCA 14.158 5.39MA CCA 12.576 4.81MA M Canals 14 4 Distr’ies 1446 369 WC’ses 42000 9500 Drains km 3690 2701 (the fig are approximate)
Reforms program to pursue…. • Involvement of farmers at all levels (esp. tail end + small farmers - they are represented in Farmers’ Organisations and in Boards of AWBs and SIDA) • Peoples participation, service delivery, fair water distribution • Training and capacity building of IPD and SIDA for better water service delivery and management • Public-Private Partnership
Deprivation Ranking – Sindh (Rural) Ghotki AWB
Proposal… • Unbundling of WAPDA and empowerment of Sindh (IPD) in Dam and other project construction in Sindh • Complete Ban on sanctioning of Direct Outlets in order to avoid serving elites at the cost of poor and small farmers- CM Sindh may be convinced • Transparency in resource allocation (and utilization)- objectively and need based delivery • Development of Sindh’s own Water vision, Water policy and Strategy- time for PPP to deliver
Proposal… • Water Governance in Sindh: Transparent /Accountable/efficient/Equitable • Sindh may raise voice for rewriting National Water Policy, water sector strategy, water vision 2025 • Strong support needed for reforms to involve farmers and water users in irrigation service Management • Karachi and other urban centers and industrial units and govt. agencies must pay water charges to Sindh Govt (IPD/SIDA) • Formation of Sindh Development Watch- Independent Group to monitor development projects, programmes - SDI and SANA may come forward-
Indus River at Kotri Mississippi river at St. Louis