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Hawaii State Health Equity Summit

Hawaii State Health Equity Summit

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Hawaii State Health Equity Summit

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  1. Hawaii State Health Equity Summit Micronesian Health Advisory Coalition September 11, 12, 2009

  2. Micronesian: history • Geo-cultural term • Total area equal to entire United States, but total land mass area equal to size of State of Rhode Island • Micronesia = Marshall Islands, Pohnpei, Yap, Palau, Chuuk, Kosrae, Northern Marianas, Guam,Nauru, Kiribati • Federated State of Micronesia (FSM), Republic of the Marshalls (RMI), and Republic of Belau commonly referred to as “Micronesia”

  3. Colonial and Political Rule • Under Colonial Rule for 400 yrs • Spain 1500 Germany 1860 Japan end WWI • US, end of WWII, under UN Trusteeship Agreement, obtained Administrative Oversight of Northern Marianas, Palau, Truk, Yap, Kusaie, Ponape, and Marshall Islands • Became TTPI ( Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) as “Strategic Trust of US” under UN Security Council • US set up Military base in Marshall Islands (Kwajalein Missile Range) and began US Nuclear Weapon Testing Program • Trusteeship Agreement objective : eventual self – reliance of TTPI ( Economic, Health, Education)

  4. Freely Associated States (FAS) • 1977 ending of US TTPI : US offered political self –determination to Northern Mariana, Palau, Marshalls, Chuuk, Yap, Korsare, Pohnpei • Net effect: Northern Marianas became Commonwealth (CNMI); Palau, Marshall Islands, FSM became Freely Associated States (FAS)

  5. Freely Associated States • Relationship with US Governed by COMPACT of Free Association (CFA): Each entity has own COMPACT with US • Financial support, grant support, political relationship, military relationship • COMPACT with FSM and RMI – 1986-2001; extended to 2004; amended 2004 to 2024 • Republic of Palau – different cycle. Intial COMPACT 1994, renegotiate with US 2009

  6. Compact of Free Association(CFA) • FAS nation sovereign except for Military matters( Strategic Denial of access to FAS airspace and waters) • Af fords FAS citizens broad migration rights ( right to reside and work), no visa or labor certification, no limitations of stay • FAS categorized by INS initially as “Qualified Aliens” who are “Permanently Under Color of Law (PRUCOL)”, means they are legal residents in the US under administrative discretion • 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed PRUCOL to “Non Qualified Aliens” status rendering FAS migrants ineligible for fed public assistance

  7. FAS Nation Population • Chuuk- 54 K • Kosrae- 8K • Pohnpei- 34K • RMI- 60K • ROB- 18K • Yap- 11K

  8. Health Indicator- Infectious diseases • dengue fever • cholera epidemic • syphilis epidemic • hepatitis B endemic • TB endemic • Hansen’s endemic

  9. Health Outcomes • Infant Mortality: (RMI- 4 x US) (ROB- 4 x US) (FSM-6 x US) • Longevity : (RMI 64 yrs) (FSM 65 yrs) (ROB 67 yrs) (US 77 yrs) • Malnutrition and Vitamin A Def • Rampant Suicide rate

  10. Health Indicators – lifestyle • 50% of people over 50 with DM • Diabetes – 75% of hospital days • 50% of men and women overweight • Ischemic Heart increasing • CVA (strokes) increasing • CA increasing • Smoking/ ETOH high

  11. Health Expenditures

  12. Legacy of US Nuclear Weapon Testing • Testing 1948-1958, Above Ground • Associated with 26 Cancers • Power of 7200 Hiroshima Bombs • 2004 NCI Report- 530 excess CA • 250 occur after 2004 (latency)

  13. COMPACT IMPACT • COMPACT Impact on FAS nations • Poor health and Education Persists • Economic Development Challenged • Large outmigration • Actual Nos. Unclear • Outmigration to US • 20,000 HI, Guam, CNMI • 8000 Hi 2004; 13,000 HI 2009 • 9000 Marshallese in Arkansas, 4000 Marhsallese Costa Mesa CA

  14. FAS migrants in Hawaii • 2000 US Census 8,725 Micronesians in Hawaii. This population is now estimated to be between 12,000 – 15,000 in 2007 • 2000 US Census listed 22,223 Micronesians in the total US population – 40 % resides in Hawaii • Emigration key drivers: economic opportunity, employment, medical and subsistence ( Graham, 2008)

  15. Public Health Impact of CFA • Poor health status of FAS migrants reflecting dismal health indicators in FAS nations • According to Hawaii Dept of Health FAS migrants have numerous health problems such communicable and chronic diseases • FAS migrants children have low immunization rate further adding to public health risk • Other health indicators: poverty or poor living conditions, language and cultural barriers, poor health behaviors making treatment and education difficult

  16. Communicable Diseases among FAS migrants in Hawaii • Recent report FAS migrant have high rates of hepatitis (FSM - 12 % to 15 %,RMI - 12 %,ROP - 12 % to 15 %) • 2008 17.7% of new TB cases were from FAS • Hansen’s Disease FAS highest ( 94% of new cases in 2008 from FAS) • CDD spent a total of $918,458 in 2007 attributable to services to FAS migrants

  17. Non communicable Diseases among FAS migrants in Hawaii • Data lacking on chronic diseases among FAS migrants in Hawaii • Significant morbidities and mortalities associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and lifestyle associated cancers • About 110 on renal dialysis and 130 – 160 on chemotherapy according to recent report • 2004 NCI study predict more nuclear related cancers

  18. Socioeconomic Indicators • Average household size – 6 • Range from 1-2 people to 17 in the household • Age range <1 yr to 78 yrs, average age 23 yrs old • Housing issues ( overcrowding, affordability, homeless) • Education: 35% less than HS education, 34% with HS education, 15% some college or college degree • Most in Service Occupations ( restaurants, security guards, airport/airline cargo services, hotels/cleaning services, retail sales, delivery services • Lack of Language Access Services • (Ann Pobutsky, 2007)

  19. LANGUAGE ACCESS SERVICE • Limited English Proficiency ( LEP) pervasive among FAS migrant population in Hawaii • LEP barrier to Quality Health Care and services further increasing health disparity among FAS migrants • Need State policy advocating provision of Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) for FAS migrants with LEP • Language Access Service (LAS) ‘cross – cutting theme’ in all aspects of health care delivery • CLAS provides the necessary health connect from access of care to quality of care

  20. CENSUS • Better demographic data collection or census specific to FAS migrants in Hawaii • Census to inform health policies affecting FAS migrants • Health policies based on accurate census help eliminate health disparities related to FAS migrants • Census has funding implications under the Compact Impact Funding under CFA agreement

  21. Compact Impact Aid • Hawaii -estimated $90 million annually in uncompensated care from FAS Migrants • Divided between Guam, CNMI, Hawaii • Federal COMPACT IMPACT Aid = 30 million annual • Divided between CNMI, Guam, Hawaii • Hawaii’s share is 11.1 million • Manifestly inadequate

  22. Federal Remedies • Increase COMPACT IMPACT Funds • Legislation to allow COFA Migrants onto Medicaid • Increase COMPACT IMPACT Funding • Increase Resources for Hlth and Education in COFA Nations • Reverse 1996 Fed PRWORA – make FAS migrants eligible for federal assistance

  23. State and Community Remedies • Micronesia Health Advisory Coalition (MHAC): propose a Resource Center to promote Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) ,Wellness, and other health and socioeconomic issues • Recommendations of 2008 Micronesian Voyages of Hawaii Conference • State COFA committees: COFA Task Force and 2004 Hawaii Un-insured Policy Brief -Impact of the COFA on Hawaii

  24. MHAC STAFF • Wilfred C. Alik, M.D., Chair • Email: wilfredalik@hotmail.com • Innocenta Sound, Vice Chair • Email : innocenta.soundkikku@gmail.com • Carmina Alik, Secretary • Email: c_alik8690@hotmail.com