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Read Ch. 17 and jot down answers. Key Questions. 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union?. 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?. 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war?.
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Read Ch. 17 and jot down answers. Key Questions 1. How do webring the Southback into the Union? 4. What branchof governmentshould controlthe process ofReconstruction? 2. How do we rebuild the South after itsdestruction during the war? 3. How do weintegrate andprotect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?
EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR creation of a single unified country abolition of slavery increased power to fed. gov't – killed the issue of states rights U.S. now an industrial nation a stronger sense of nationalism Western lands increasingly opened to settlement South was economically and physically devastated, w/ the plantation system crippled...thus Reconstruction (rebuilding the U.S.) - but a deep hatred of the North remained...
Reconstruction Questions 4. What branchof governmentshould controlthe process ofReconstruction? 1. How do webring the Southback into the Union? “Reconstruction” refers to the era from 1865 to 1877 when the U.S. gov’t addressed bringing the South back into the Union after the Civil War & the treatment over former slaves in America 2. How do we rebuild the Southafter itsdestruction during the war? 3. How do weintegrate andprotect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?
The South is destroyed • The Civil War ended April 9, 1865. • Most of the land in the South was destroyed by the Civil War. The South would need to be rebuilt. • This rebuilding of the South was called Reconstruction.
Wartime Reconstruction Plans • In 1863, Lincoln announced a lenient Ten Percent Plan: • President Lincoln wanted to reunite the nation as quickly as possible. • Any southern state with at least 10% of its voters making a pledge to be loyal to the U.S. could be readmitted to the Union. • The South also had to accept a ban on slavery. Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan: Radical Republicans wanted black male suffrage added & feared that Confederate leaders would take charge in the South
The Slaves Are Free • With the ending of the war, the slaves were now free. • The 13th Amendment to the Constitution was passed. • The 13th Amendmentmade slaveryillegal forever in the United States.
13th Amendment • Ratified in December, 1865. • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
The U.S. government was divided in its approach to Reconstruction: • Lincoln wanted: • Quick re-admission of the South & no formal protection for freed blacks • Use pardons to control the South • South decides to pledge loyalty • Republicans in Congress wanted: • Guaranteed rights for ex-slaves & a promise that ex-Confederate leaders couldn’t govern • Congress has right to decide whether slaves can join
Wartime Reconstruction Plans • The Wade-Davis Bill was passed by Congress in 1864: • 50% of state populations had to swear an oath of loyalty • Confederate leaders were not eligible to vote or participate in state governments • Did not require black suffrage but did enforce emancipation • But Lincoln vetoed the bill By the end of the Civil War, the U.S. government had no plan for Reconstruction in place This problem was compounded in 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) • Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). • Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials. • Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties. SenatorBenjaminWade(R-OH) CongressmanHenryW. Davis(R-MD)
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address • On March 4, 1865, President Lincoln laid out his approach to Reconstruction in his second inaugural address. • He hoped to reunite the nation and it’s people.
“With malice [hatred] toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and for his orphans, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” –A.L.
Lincoln is assassinated • Just six days after the war ended, on April 15, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated while watching a play. • Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Southerner who was angry at Lincoln. • Vice-President Andrew Johnson became president.
Who will become president? What will Reconstruction look like now??
President Andrew Johnson • Jacksonian Democrat. • Anti-Aristocrat. • White Supremacist. • Agreed with Lincolnthat states had neverlegally left the Union.
Growing Northern Alarm! • Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. • Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. • Revival of southern defiance. BLACK CODES
Black Codes • Purpose: • Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. • Restore pre-emancipationsystem of race relations. • Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].
“Malice towards none and charity for all” —Abraham Lincoln “Every head of family in the United States should have one slave to take the drudgery and menial service off his family” —Andrew Johnson
Radical Republicans • The Black Codes angered many Republicans in Congress who felt the South was returning to its old ways. • The Radical Republicans wanted the South to change more before they could be readmitted to the Union. • They were angry at President Johnson for letting the South off so easy.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. • Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen and establish schools. • Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
The Freedman’s Bureau • The Freedman’s Bureau was established in 1865 to offer assistance to former slaves & protect their new citizenship: • Provided emergency food, housing, medical supplies • Promised “40 acres & a mule” • Supervised labor contracts • Created new schools
14th Amendment • Ratified in July, 1868: • Federal gov’t must protect the civil rights of all Americans • Defined the meaning of “citizenship” for Americans • Clearly defined punishments for Southern states who violated the civil rights of African-Americans • Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
The 14th Amendment • The 14th Amendment guaranteed citizenship to all people born or naturalized within the U.S. except for the Indians. • It said that state governments could not “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, withoutdue process of law.”
Johnson and The Radical Republicans • Congress was angry at President Johnson for not going along with their Reconstruction policies. • As a result, Congress impeached Johnson.
Impeachment • Impeachment is the process of charging a public official with a crime. • The next step was to try the president in the Senate. • By a single vote, Republicans failed to convict Johnson. • The only other time a president has been impeached was Bill Clinton.
Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle” The 1866 Bi-Election • A referendum on Radical Reconstruction. • Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his plan. • Republicanswon a 3-1majority in both houses and gained control of every northern state.
Radical Reconstruction Thaddeus Stevens the most influential of the “radical” Republicans; He opposed the Crittenden Compromise, led the impeachment charges against Johnson, & drafted the Radical Reconstruction plan used from 1867 to 1877 • Congress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, trumped Johnson by passing it its own Radical Reconstruction plan in 1867: • Congress could confiscate & redistribute Southern plantations • Allowed quick re-entry for states that supported black suffrage • Ex-Confederates couldn’t vote • And…
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 • Command of the Army Act • The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military. • Tenure of Office Act • The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. • Designed to protect radicalmembers of Lincoln’s government. • A question of the constitutionality of this law. Edwin Stanton
Created 5 military districts to enforce acts But, Radical Reconstruction was so dependent on massive & sustained federal aid that it was not adequate to enforce equality in the South… Created 5 military districts to enforce Reconstruction …and Johnson obstructed Republicans’ plans by removing sympathetic cabinet members & generals
President Johnson’s Impeachment • Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868. • Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction. • The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
The Senate Trial • 11 week trial. • Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
Reconstructing Southern Society • How did Reconstruction impact the South? • Southern whites wanted to keep newly-freed blacks inferior • Freed blacks sought equality, property, education, & the vote • Many Northerners moved South to make money or to "civilize" the region after the Civil War
Problem: families accumulated debt to the landowner before their crop was sold; This cyclical process led to mortgages on future crops (crop lien system) Sharecropping By the end of 1865, most freedmen had returned to work on the same plantations on which they were previously enslaved
The Black Codes • The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states that limited the new-found freedom of African Americans. • Black Codes forced African Americans to work on farms or as servants. They also prevented African Americans from owning guns, holding public meetings, or renting property in cities.
Black Codes: A New Slavery? • Violence & discrimination against freedmen by whites was common: • Southerners used black codes to keep former slaves from voting, getting jobs, buying land • 1,000s of blacks were murdered • U.S. army did not have enough troopstokeep order in the South
Voting Rights • Other laws were passed to keep blacks from voting. • One law said former slaves had to pay a tax to vote. It was called a poll tax. • Another law was passed that said a person could only vote if their grandfather had voted. These laws were called the Grandfather Clause.
Republican Rule in the South • In 1867, a Southern Republican Party was formed by: • Northern “carpetbaggers” • Southern “scalawags” interested in making money in the South • Small, white farmers who wanted protection from creditors • Blacks who wanted civil rights • Many Southern blacks were elected to state & national gov’t Southern Republicans were only in power for 1-9 years but improved public education, welfare, & transportation
15th Amendment • Ratified in 1870. • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. • The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. • Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
How effective was the U.S. in addressing these Reconstruction questions? 4. What branchof governmentshould controlthe process ofReconstruction? 1. How tobring the Southback into the Union? 2. How to rebuild the Southafter itsdestruction during the war? 3. How to integrate &protect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?