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Seasonings & Flavorings

Seasonings & Flavorings

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Seasonings & Flavorings

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  1. Seasonings & Flavorings Culinary Academy

  2. Seasonings & Flavorings • Enhancing the natural flavor of foods is part of the art of cooking. • Using seasonings & flavorings correctly is a skill that develops over time. • Tasting foods throughout the cooking process will help you develop this skill. • A seasoning is an ingredient that intensifies or improves food without changing the natural flavor. • Salt & Pepper are examples.

  3. Seasonings & Flavorings • A flavor enhancer increases the way you perceive the food’s flavor withour changing the flavor of the dish. • MSG (monosodium glutamate) is an example. • A flavoring actually changes the natural flavor of the foods to which it is added. • An extract (vanilla or almond) is an example.

  4. Salt • The most commonly used seasoning. • Can be added to almost any food. • Intensifies hot foods more than cold foods. • Table salt is the most common type of salt used. • Other Salts Include: • Rock salt • Sea Salt • Kosher Salt • Always taste before adding more salt – too much salt can ruin a dish.

  5. Pepper • The most widely used spice in the world. • Has been used since ancient times – widely traded and used as currency. • Usually used in ground form rather than whole peppercorns. • Varieties Include: • Black Pepper: dried, unripe berries of the pepper plant. • White Pepper: kernel of the ripe pepper plant berries. • Green Peppercorns:unripened berries, preserved in brine until they darken. Expensive and have fresh flavor. • Red Pepper: from the capsicum plant . Closer to the bell pepper family. (Cayenne and Paprika) • Hot Pepper: AKA Chiles. Vary in their degree of hotness, color & flavor

  6. Onion • Flavoring that can be added to just about any dish. • Includes: • Scallions, leeks, shallots, chives, garlic • Strong aroma and flavor. • Base for many stocks & soups • Fresh onions have a stronger flavor than dried. • May need MORE when adding to food.

  7. Lemon • The Zest or Rind adds flavor. • Contains the flavorful OIL of the lemon. • Usually scrape or peel the very top layer. • Adds citrus flavor to fish, meat and vegetables. • Avoid the pith (white membrane) as it is bitter.

  8. MSG • Monosodium glutamate is a type of salt that comes from seaweed. • Intensifies the flavor of foods. • Also provides a savory flavor. • Has NO effect on milk or fruits. • Some people are allergic or sensitive to MSG.

  9. When to Season • General Rule: You can season food at any time during the cooking process. • However: Certain forms of food lend, or adapt, themselves to adding seasoning at certain times. • Soup – Wait until the end to add salt. • Roast – add seasonings at the beginning (allows for absorption through the entire food) • Be SURE to taste and evaluate during cooking process. • Dried seasonings should be added earlier than fresh seasonings.

  10. Adding Flavor • Flavorings can also be added during the cooking process. • Effects will depend on the length of cooking time. • Flavorings need heat to release their flavors. • They also need time to blend with the natural flavors of the food. • Whole spices such as ginger or peppercorns take longer to be absorbed into food than ground spices. • Be sure not to overcook as flavorings will lose their effect.

  11. Blends • A blend is a combination of herbs, spices and seeds. • Examples include: • Chili Powder • Curry Powder • Garlic Salt • Blends can be created ahead of time or on the spot in your own kitchen. • When herbs are used with spices in a blend they complement each other.

  12. Herbs • Herbs enhance the flavor of food, but you must use them correctly. • Incorrect use can ruin the flavor of foods. • An herb is a plant. • The leaves and stems are harvested. • They can be used fresh or dried. • Add color and aroma to foods. • Fresh herbs should be used whenever possible.

  13. Herbs & Herb Use • Fresh are more abundant in summer. • Fresh can be dried or frozen for later use. • Fresh are not as strong in flavor as dried. • When using fresh double the amount of dried called for in a recipe. • Fresh should be minced or crushed as close to cooking & serving time as possible. • Add fresh at the end of cooking. • Add fresh to uncooked foods several hours before serving time.

  14. Herb Use • Dried herbs should be added at the beginning of cooking. • Use a little dried and add more after tasting. • Some common herb/food combinations: • Lamb & Rosemary • Tomato & Basil • It is good to experiment with different flavor combinations.

  15. Common Herbs • Basil • Bay Leaf • Chervil • Chives • Cilantro • Dill • Lemongrass • Marjoram • Mint • Oregano • Parsley • Rosemary • Sage • Tarragon • Thyme

  16. Herbs & Storage • Herbs can be added to dishes in form of a sachet (herbs in a bag) or bouquet garni(fresh herbs & vegetables tied with twine) • Both are removed before serving. • Wrap fresh herbs loosely in damp paper towels and refrigerate. • Store dried herbs in opaque containers with a tight lid in a cool, dry place. • Do not expose dried herbs to heat, light, or excess moisture.

  17. Spices • Spices come from the bark, buds, fruits, roots, seeds, or stems of plants and trees. • Commonly only used in their dried form. • Come in two forms: • Whole • Ground • Flavor and aroma of spices comes from oils. • Some plants provide both herb and spice: • Dill seeds are a spice • Dill leaves are an herb • Should know a spice’s aroma and its effect on food.

  18. Spices • Can be used whole, ground, sliced or in chunks. • Form depends on length of cooking time. • Whole spices take longer to release their flavor. • Add as early as possible when cooking. • Good when poaching fruit or marinating • Add spices to cold food several hours before serving.

  19. Spices • Can also be used to add color to dishes. • Saffron for paella • Ground spices release flavor immediately. • Add toward the end of cooking. • Make sure to measure accurately. • Strong spices can easily overpower a dish.

  20. Spices • Allspice • Anise Seed • Cardamom • Cinnamon • Celery Seed • Cayenne • Cumin • Chiles • Dill Seeds • Fennel Seeds • Saffron • Pepper & Peppercorns • Nutmeg • Mustard Seeds • Paprika • Ginger

  21. Spices & Storage • Store in air-tight containers away from direct sunlight. • Cool, dry place. • Age, type, source of spices play a role in how long they can be stored. • Check often to make sure they have retained their strength.