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## Table of Contents

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**Stoichiometry**Chapter 9 Table of Contents Section 1Calculating Quantities in Reactions Section 2Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yield Section 3Stoichiometry and Cars**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Bellringer • Write the quantities of ingredients you would use to make a sandwich. • Then determine how many sandwiches you could make from 24 slices of bread. • Calculate how much of each other ingredient is needed.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Objectives • Use proportional reasoning to determine mole ratios from a balanced chemical equation. • Explain why mole ratios are central to solving stoichiometry problems. • Solve stoichiometry problems involving mass by using molar mass. • Solve stoichiometry problems involving the volume of a substance by using density.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Objectives, continued • Solve stoichiometry problems involving the number of particles of a substance by using Avogadro’s number.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Balanced Equations Show Proportions • The proportions of the ingredients in a muffin recipe let you adjust the amounts to make enough muffins even if you do not have balanced amounts initially. • A balanced chemical equation is very similar to a recipe in that the coefficients in the balanced equation show the proportions of the reactants and products. • Consider the reaction for the synthesis of water. • 2H2 + O2 2H2O**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Balanced Equations Show Proportions, continued 2H2 + O2 2H2O • The coefficients show that two molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen and form two molecules of water. • Calculations that involve chemical reactions use the proportions from balanced chemical equations to find the quantity of each reactant and product involved.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Balanced Equations Show Proportions, continued • For each problem in this section, assume that there is more than enough of all other reactants to completely react with the reactant given. • Also assume that every reaction happens perfectly, so that no product is lost during collection.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Balanced Equations Show Proportions, continued Relative Amounts in Equations Can Be Expressed in Moles • The coefficients in a balanced equation also represent the moles of each substance. • For example, the equation below shows that 2 mol H2 react with 1 mol O2 to form 2 mol H2O. • 2C8H18 + 25O2 16CO2 + 18H2O**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Balanced Equations Show Proportions, continued Relative Amounts in Equations Can Be Expressed in Moles, continued • You can determine how much of a reactant is needed to produce a given quantity of product, or how much of a product is formed from a given quantity of reactant. • The branch of chemistry that deals with quantities of substances in chemical reactions is known as stoichiometry.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 The Mole Ratio Is the Key • The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation show the relative numbers of moles of the substances in the reaction. • As a result, you can use the coefficients in conversion factors called mole ratios. • Mole ratios bridge the gap and can convert from moles of one substance to moles of another.**Visual Concepts**Chapter 9 Stoichiometry Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept**Converting Between Amounts in Moles**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions Chapter 9**Visual Concepts**Chapter 9 Conversion of Quantities in Moles Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Using Mole Ratios Sample Problem A Consider the reaction for the commercial preparation of ammonia. N2 + 3H2 2NH3 How many moles of hydrogen are needed to prepare 312 moles of ammonia?**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Using Mole Ratios, continued Sample Problem A Solution amount of NH3 = 312 mol amount of H2 = ? mol 3 mol H2 = 2 mol NH3 The mole ratio must cancel out the units of mol NH3 given in the problem and leave the units of mol H2. Therefore, the mole ratio is**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Using Mole Ratios, continued Sample Problem A Solution, continued**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 The Mole Ratio Is the Key, continued Getting into Moles and Getting out of Moles • All stoichiometry problems have three basic steps. • First, change the units you are given into moles. • Second, use the mole ratio to determine moles of the desired substance. • Third, change out of moles to whatever unit you need for your final answer. • If you are given moles, just skip to the first step.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 The Mole Ratio Is the Key, continued Solving Stoichiometry Problems • Gather information. • Determine the balanced equation for the reaction. • Write the information provided for the given substance. • Determine the information you need to change the given units into moles. • Write the units you are asked to find for the unknown substance. • Determine the information you need to change moles into the desired units.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 The Mole Ratio Is the Key, continued Solving Stoichiometry Problems, continued • Write an equality using substances and their coefficients that shows the relative amounts of the substances from the balanced equation. • Plan your work. • Think through the three basic steps : • change to moles • use the mole ratio • change out of moles • Find the conversion factors for each step.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 The Mole Ratio Is the Key, continued Solving Stoichiometry Problems, continued • Write the mole ratio: • Calculate. • Write a “?” with the units of the answer followed by “=“ and the quantity of the given substance. • Write the conversion factors—including the mole ratio—in order so that you change the units of the given substance to the units needed.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 The Mole Ratio Is the Key, continued Solving Stoichiometry Problems, continued • Cancel units and check that the remaining units are the required units of the unknown substance. • When you have finished your calculations, round off the answer to the correct number of significant figures. • In the examples in this book, only the final answer is rounded off. • Report your answer with correct units and with the name or formula of the substance.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 The Mole Ratio Is the Key, continued Solving Stoichiometry Problems, continued • Verify your result. • Verify your answer by estimating. • Round off the numbers in the setup in step 3 and make a quick calculation. • Or, compare conversion factors in the setup and to predict the size of an answer. • Make sure your answer is reasonable. • Large differences in predicted quantities should alert you that there may be an error and that you should double-check your work.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass, Volume, or Particles • Stoichiometric calculations are used to determine how much of the reactants are needed and how much product is expected. • Calculations don’t always start and end with moles. • Mass, volume, or number of particles can all be used as the starting and ending quantities of stoichiometry problems. • The key to all these problems is the mole ratio.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass, Volume, or Particles, continued For Mass Calculations, Use Molar Mass • The conversion factor for converting between mass and amount in moles is molar mass. A mass-mass problem is a three-step process. • Convert the given mass in grams into moles. • Use the mole ratio to convert into moles of the desired substance. • Convert this amount in moles into grams.**Solving Mass-Mass Problems**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions Chapter 9**Visual Concepts**Chapter 9 Mass-Mass Calculations Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass Sample Problem B What mass of NH3 can be made from 1221 g H2 and excess N2? N2 + 3H2 2NH3**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass, continued Sample Problem B Solution mass of H2 = 1221 g H2 molar mass of H2 = 2.02 g/mol mass of NH3 = ? g NH3 molar mass of NH3 = 17.04 g/mol 3 mol H2 = 2 mol NH3 To change grams to moles, use the molar mass of H2.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass, continued Sample Problem B Solution, continued The mole ratio must cancel out the units of mol H2 given in the problem and leave the units of mol NH3. Therefore, the mole ratio is To change moles of NH3 to grams, use the molar mass of NH3.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass Sample Problem B Solution, continued**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass, Volume, or Particles, continued For Volume, You Might Use Density and Molar Mass • To do calculations involving liquids, you add two more steps to mass-mass problems—converting volume to mass and mass to volume. • One way to convert between the volume and mass of a substance is to use the density. • If a substance in the problem is a gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP), use the molar volume of a gas (22.41 L/mol for any gas) to convert the volume of the gas to moles.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass, Volume, or Particles, continued For Volume, You Might Use Density and Molar Mass, continued • If a substance in the problem is in aqueous solution, use the concentration of the solution to convert the volume of the solution to the moles of the substance dissolved.**Solving Volume-Volume Problems**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions Chapter 9**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Volume Sample Problem C What volume of H3PO4 forms when 56 mL POCl3 completely react? (density of POCl3 = 1.67 g/mL; density of H3PO4 = 1.83 g/mL) POCl3(l) + 3H2O(l) H3PO4(l) + 3HCl(g)**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Volume, continued Sample Problem C Solution volume POCl3 = 56 mL POCl3 density POCl3 = 1.67 g/mL molar mass POCl3 = 153.32 g/mol volume H3PO4 = ? density H3PO4 = 1.83 g/mL molar mass H3PO4 = 98.00 g/mol 1 mol POCl3 = 1 mol H3PO4 To change milliliters of POCl3 to moles, use the densityof POCl3 followed by its molar mass.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Volume, continued Sample Problem C Solution, continued The mole ratio must cancel out the units of mol POCl3 given in the problem and leave the units of mol H3PO4. Therefore, the mole ratio is To change out of moles of H3PO4 into milliliters, use the molar mass of H3PO4 followed by its density.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Volume, continued Sample Problem C Solution, continued**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass, Volume, or Particles, continued For Number of Particles, Use Avogadro’s Number • You can use Avogadro’s number, • 6.022 1023 particles/ mol, in stoichiometry problems. • If you are given particles and asked to find particles, Avogadro’s number cancels out. • For this kind of calculation you use only the coefficients from the balanced equation.**Solving Particle Problems**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions Chapter 9**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Particles Sample Problem D How many grams of C5H8 form from 1.89 × 1024 molecules C5H12? C5H12(l) C5H8(l) + 2H2(g)**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Particles, continued Sample Problem D Solution quantity of C5H12 = 1.89 1024 molecules Avogadro’s number = 6.022 1023 molecules/mol mass of C5H8 = ? g C5H8 molar mass of C5H8 = 68.13 g/mol 1 mol C5H12 = 1 mol C5H8 Set up the problem using Avogadro’s number to change to moles, then use the mole ratio, and finally use the molar mass of C5H8 to change to grams.**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Particles, continued Sample Problem D Solution, continued**Section1 Calculating Quantities in Reactions**Chapter 9 Problems Involving Mass, Volume, or Particles, continued Many Problems, Just One Solution • Each stoichiometry solution will have three steps. • Take whatever you are given, and find a way to change it into moles. • Then, use a mole ratio from the balanced equation to get moles of the second substance. • Finally, find a way to convert the moles into the units that you need for your final answer.**Section2 Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yields**Chapter 9 Bellringer • Discuss how the amount of product calculated from a given amount of reactant is an ideal amount. • Discuss how the amount of product formed from a real reaction might differ from the amount calculated. • Offer reasons for the difference.**Section2 Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yields**Chapter 9 Objectives • Identify the limiting reactant for a reaction and use it to calculate theoretical yield. • Perform calculations involving percentage yield.**Section2 Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yields**Chapter 9 Limiting Reactants and Theoretical Yield • In the previous section, we assumed that 100% of the reactants changed into products. • That is what should happen theoretically. • In the real world, other factors can limit the yield of a reaction. • the amounts of all reactant • the completeness of the reaction • product lost in the process • Whatever reactant is in short supply will limit the quantity of product made.**Section2 Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yields**Chapter 9 Limiting Reactants and Theoretical Yield, continued The Limiting Reactant Forms the Least Product • Reactants of a reaction are seldom present in ratios equal to the mole ratio in the balanced equation, so one of the reactants is used up first. • For example, If you combine 0.23 mol Zn and 0.60 mol HCl, would they react completely? • Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 • The coefficients indicate that 0.23 mol Zn forms 0.23 mol H2, and 0.60 mol HCl forms 0.30 mol H2.**Section2 Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yields**Chapter 9 Limiting Reactants and Theoretical Yield, continued The Limiting Reactant Forms the Least Product, continued • Zinc is called the limiting reactant because it limits the amount of product that can form. • It gets used up. • The HCl is the excess reactant because there is more than enough HCl present to react with all of the Zn. • There will be some HCl left over.**Visual Concepts**Chapter 9 Limiting Reactants and Excess Reactants Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept**Section2 Limiting Reactants and Percentage Yields**Chapter 9 Limiting Reactants and Theoretical Yield, continued Determine Theoretical Yield from the Limiting Reactant • The maximum quantity of product that a reaction could theoretically make if everything about the reaction works perfectly is called the theoretical yield. • The theoretical yield of a reaction should always be calculated based on the limiting reactant.