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Module 03

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Module 03

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  1. Module 03 Fonty

  2. Obsah • Zobrazovanie textu • Bitmapové fonty • Outline fonty • 2D texture fonty • Demonštračný program

  3. Zobrazovanie textu • Niekedy je potrebné zobraziť v grafickej aplikácii aj texty • Texty sa používajú napríklad v: • menu • screensavers • dialógy • Jednoduché textové efekty • Je niekoľko základných techník používaných pri výpise textu pomocou OpenGL knižnice. • Mnohé sú závisle od daného operačný systému, na ktorom sa bude aplikácie spúšťať

  4. Bitmapové Fonty • Bitmapové fonty ponúkajú jednoduchý spôsob na zobrazenie 2D textu na obrazovku • Informácie o znakoch sú uložené v podobe bitmapy v jednom veľkom bitmapovom obrázku • Nevýhodou je ich kostrbatosť a bez antialiasingu pri zväčšovaní sú neosté • Výhodou je ich jednoduchosť implementácie a rýchlosť vypisovania textu na obrazovku. • Vytvárajú sa pomocou wgl funkcií wglUseFont Bitmaps(), ktoré generujú bitmapy z existujúceho súboru s fontom natiahnutého vo vašom OS.

  5. Outline Fonty • Outline fontsú veľmi podobné bitmapovým fontom • Outline fonty definujú znakyvo fonte ako sériu čiara kriviek, ktoré je možné zväčšovať aj zmenšovať bez straty kvality. • Pomocou OpenGL je možné hýbať s outline fontovým textom okolo obrazovky v 3D, priradiť textu hĺbku, a narábať s fontom rovnako, ako z ľubovolným iným 3D objektom.

  6. 2D Texture Fonts • Používanie texúrory na uloženie fontumá viacero výhod (šetrenie pamätovým priestorom, zvýšenie FPS) • Napríklad v tomto module budeme používať iba jednu textúru na definovanie 256 znakov. • Na jeden znak máme vymedzený priestor 16 x 16 pixelovpri štandardnej veľkosti textúry 256x256

  7. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (1) Postup: 1) include header files for working with input and arguments 2) declare new global variable for base display list for the font set 3) declare new global functions for building, printing and releasing the GL font 4) define font building function BuildFont() 5) define font releasing function KillFont() 6) define font printing function glPrint() 7) load and enable the new font while setting up the OpenGL environment 8) draw text 9) properly release font

  8. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (2) 1) include header files for working with input and arguments //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Header Files //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … #include <stdio.h> // Header File For Standard Input/Output #include <stdarg.h> // Header File For Variable Argument Routines … 2) declare new global variables for base display list for the font set //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Global Variables //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … GLuint base; // Base Display List For The Font Set …

  9. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (3) 3) declare new global functions for building, printing and releasing font //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Global Functions //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid); // Declaration For BuildFont GLvoid glPrint(const char *fmt, ...); // Declaration For glPrint GLvoid KillFont(GLvoid); // Declaration For KillFont … 4) define font building function BuildFont() GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) { HFONT font; // Windows Font ID HFONT oldfont; // Used For Good House Keeping base = glGenLists(96); // Storage For 96 Characters … } // end of BuildFont()

  10. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (4) 4) define font building function BuildFont() GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) { … font = CreateFont( -24, // Height Of Font 0, // Width Of Font 0, // Angle Of Escapement 0, // Orientation Angle FW_BOLD, // Font Weight FALSE, // Italic FALSE, // Underline FALSE, // Strikeout ANSI_CHARSET, // Character Set Identifier OUT_TT_PRECIS, // Output Precision CLIP_DEFAULT_PRECIS, // Clipping Precision ANTIALIASED_QUALITY, // Output Quality FF_DONTCARE|DEFAULT_PITCH, // Family And Pitch "Courier New"); // Font Name … } // end of BuildFont()

  11. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (5) 4) define font building function BuildFont() GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) { … oldfont = (HFONT)SelectObject(hDC, font); // Selects The Font We Want // Builds 96 Characters Starting At Character 32 wglUseFontBitmaps(hDC, 32, 96, base); SelectObject(hDC, oldfont); // Selects The Font We Want DeleteObject(font); // Delete The Font } // end of BuildFont()

  12. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (6) 5) define font releasing function KillFont() GLvoid KillFont(GLvoid) { glDeleteLists(base, 96); // Delete All 96 Characters } // end of KillFont() 6) define font printing function glPrint() GLvoid glPrint(const char *fmt, ...) { char text[256]; // Holds Our String va_list ap; // Pointer To List Of Arguments if (fmt == NULL) // If There's No Text return; // Do Nothing … } // end of glPrint()

  13. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (7) 6) define font printing function glPrint() GLvoid glPrint(const char *fmt, ...) { … va_start(ap, fmt); // Parses The String For Variables vsprintf(text, fmt, ap); // And Converts Symbols To Actual Numbers va_end(ap); // Results Are Stored In Text glPushAttrib(GL_LIST_BIT); // Pushes The Display List Bits glListBase(base - 32); // Sets The Base Character to 32 glCallLists(strlen(text), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, text); // Draws The Display List Text glPopAttrib(); // Pops The Display List Bits } // end of glPrint()

  14. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (8) 7) load and enable the new font while setting up the OpenGL environment int InitGL(GLvoid) // All Setup For OpenGL Goes Here { … BuildFont(); // Build The Font … } // end of InitGL(Glvoid) 8) draw text int DrawGLScene(GLvoid) { … glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Current Modelview Matrix glTranslatef(0.0f,0.0f,-1.0f); // Move One Unit Into The Screen glColor3f(1.0,0.0,0.0); // Set Font Color glRasterPos2f(-0.35, 0); // Set Font Position glPrint("Module04 - OpenGL Bitmap Fonts"); // Set text … } // end of DrawGLScene()

  15. Drawing OpenGL bitmap font (9) 9) properly release font GLvoid KillGLWindow(GLvoid) { … KillFont(); // release thefont } // end of KillGLWindow()

  16. Final result Using of bitmap font

  17. Practice Open: Lab03 / BitmapFont / BitmapFont.sln

  18. Drawing OpenGL outline font (1) We will continue with previous lab (1). Steps to do: 1) include header files for working with input and arguments 2) declare new global variables for text rotation and outline font characters storage info 3) declare new global functions for building, printing and releasing the GL outline font 4) define outline font building function BuildFont() 5) define outline font releasing function KillFont() 6) define outline font printing function glPrint() 7) load and enable the new outline font setting up the OpenGL environment 8) draw text • properly release font

  19. Drawing OpenGL outline font (2) 1) include header files for working with input and arguments //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Header Files //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … #include <stdio.h> // Header File For Standard Input/Output #include <stdarg.h> // Header File For Variable Argument Routines … 2) declare new global variables for text rotation and outline font characters storage info //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Global Variables //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … GLuint base; // Base Display List For The Font Set GLuint rot ; // Used To Rotate The Text GLYPHMETRICSFLOAT gmf[256];// Storage For Information About Our Outline Font Characters …

  20. Drawing OpenGL outline font (3) 3) declare new global functions for building, printing and releasing outline font //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Global Functions //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid); // Declaration For BuildFont GLvoid glPrint(const char *fmt, ...); // Declaration For glPrint GLvoid KillFont(GLvoid); // Declaration For KillFont … 4) define outline font building function BuildFont() GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) { HFONT font; // Windows Font ID base = glGenLists(256); // Storage For 256 Characters … } // end of BuildFont()

  21. Drawing OpenGL outline font (4) 4) define outline font building function BuildFont() GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) { … font = CreateFont( -24, // Height Of Font 0, // Width Of Font 0, // Angle Of Escapement 0, // Orientation Angle FW_BOLD, // Font Weight FALSE, // Italic FALSE, // Underline FALSE, // Strikeout ANSI_CHARSET, // Character Set Identifier OUT_TT_PRECIS, // Output Precision CLIP_DEFAULT_PRECIS, // Clipping Precision ANTIALIASED_QUALITY, // Output Quality FF_DONTCARE|DEFAULT_PITCH, // Family And Pitch "Courier New"); // Font Name … } // end of BuildFont()

  22. Drawing OpenGL outline font (5) 4) define outline font building function BuildFont() GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) { … SelectObject(hDC, font); // Selects The Font We Created wglUseFontOutlines( hDC, // Select The Current DC 0, // Starting Character 255, // Number Of Display Lists To Build base, // Starting Display Lists 0.0f, // Deviation From The True Outlines 0.2f, // Font Thickness In The Z Direction WGL_FONT_POLYGONS, // Use Polygons, Not Lines gmf); // Address Of Buffer To Recieve Data } // end of BuildFont()

  23. Drawing OpenGL outline font (6) 5) define outline font releasing function KillFont() GLvoid KillFont(GLvoid) { glDeleteLists(base, 256); // Delete All 256 Characters } // end of KillFont() 6) define outline font printing function glPrint() GLvoid glPrint(const char *fmt, ...) { char text[256]; // Holds Our String va_list ap; // Pointer To List Of Arguments if (fmt == NULL) // If There's No Text return; // Do Nothing … } // end of glPrint()

  24. Drawing OpenGL outline font (7) 6) define font printing function glPrint() GLvoid glPrint(const char *fmt, ...) { … va_start(ap, fmt); // Parses The String For Variables vsprintf(text, fmt, ap); // And Converts Symbols To Actual Numbers va_end(ap); // Results Are Stored In Text for (unsigned int loop=0;loop<(strlen(text));loop++) // Loop To Find Text Length { length+=gmf[text[loop]].gmfCellIncX;// Increase Length By Each Characters Width } glTranslatef(-length/2,0.0f,0.0f); // Center Our Text On The Screen glPushAttrib(GL_LIST_BIT); // Pushes The Display List Bits glListBase(base); // Sets The Base Character to 0 glCallLists(strlen(text), GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, text); // Draws The Display List Text glPopAttrib(); // Pops The Display List Bits } // end of glPrint()

  25. Drawing OpenGL outline font (8) 7) load and enable the new font while setting up the OpenGL environment int InitGL(GLvoid) // All Setup For OpenGL Goes Here { … BuildFont(); // Build The Font … } // end of InitGL(Glvoid) 8) draw text int DrawGLScene(GLvoid) { … glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Current Modelview Matrix glTranslatef(0.0f,0.0f,-15.0f); // Move One Unit Into The Screen … } // end of DrawGLScene()

  26. Drawing OpenGL outline font (9) 8) draw text int DrawGLScene(GLvoid) { … glRotatef(rot,1.0f,0.0f,0.0f); // Rotate On The X Axis glRotatef(rot*1.5f,0.0f,1.0f,0.0f); // Rotate On The Y Axis glRotatef(rot*1.4f,0.0f,0.0f,1.0f); // Rotate On The Z Axis glColor3f(1,0,0); // Set Outline Font Color glPrint("Module04 - OpenGL Outline Fonts"); // Print GL Text To The Screen rot+=0.25f; // Increase The Rotation Variable … } // end of DrawGLScene()

  27. Drawing OpenGL outline font (10) 9) properly release font GLvoid KillGLWindow(GLvoid) { … KillFont(); // release thefont } // end of KillGLWindow()

  28. Final result OpenGL outline font

  29. Practice Open: Lab03 / OutlineFont /OutlineFont.sln

  30. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (1) Steps to do: 1) include header files for working with math and input operations 2) declare new global variables to point us to our display list, for text texture, loop and to move text & for coloring 3) declare new global functions for loading font bmp file, converting it to the texture, building, printing and releasing 2D texture font 4) load font bmp file 5) load font bitmaps and convert to texture 6) define 2D texture font building function BuildFont() 7) define 2D texture font releasing function KillFont() 8) define 2D texture font printing function glPrint() 9) load and enable the new 2D texture font setting up the OpenGL environment 10) draw text 11) properly release font

  31. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (2) 1) include header files for working with math and input operations in init.h //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Header Files //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … #include <math.h> // Header File For Windows Math Library #include <stdio.h> // Header File For Standard Input/Output … 2) declare new global variables to point us to our display list, for text texture, loop and to move text & for coloring //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Global Variables //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … GLuint base; // Base Display List For The Font GLuint texture[1]; // Storage For Font Texture GLuint loop; // Generic Loop Variable …

  32. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (3) 2) declare new global variables to point us to our display list, for text texture, loop and to move text & for coloring … GLfloat cnt1; // 1st Counter Used To Move Text & For Coloring GLfloat cnt2; // 2nd Counter Used To Move Text & For Coloring … 3) declare new global functions for loading font bmp file, converting it to the texture, building, printing and releasing 2D texture font //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- // Global Functions //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- … AUX_RGBImageRec *LoadBMP(char *Filename); // Declaration For LoadBMP int LoadGLTextures(); // Declaration For LoadGLTextures GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid); // Declaration For BuildFont GLvoid KillFont(GLvoid); // Declaration For KillFont GLvoid glPrint(GLint x, GLint y, char *string, int set); // Declaration For glPrint …

  33. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (4) 4) load font bmp file AUX_RGBImageRec *LoadBMP(char *Filename) { FILE *File=NULL; // File Handle if (!Filename) // Make Sure A Filename Was Given { return NULL; // If Not Return NULL } File=fopen(Filename,"r"); // Check To See If The File Exists if (File) // Does The File Exist? { fclose(File); // Close The Handle return auxDIBImageLoad(Filename); // Load The Bitmap And Return A Pointer } return NULL; // If Load Failed Return NULL } // end of LoadBMP()

  34. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (5) 5) load font bitmaps and convert to texture int LoadGLTextures() { int Status=FALSE; // Status Indicator AUX_RGBImageRec *TextureImage[2]; // Create Storage Space For The Textures memset(TextureImage,0,sizeof(void *)*2); // Set The Pointer To NULL if (TextureImage[0]=LoadBMP("Data/Font.bmp")) { Status=TRUE; // Set The Status To TRUE glGenTextures(1, &texture[0]); // Create One Texture glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D,GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER,GL_LINEAR); … } // end of LoadGLTextures()

  35. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (6) 5) load font bitmaps and convert to texture int LoadGLTextures() { ... glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, 3, TextureImage[loop]->sizeX, TextureImage[loop]->sizeY, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, TextureImage[0]->data); } if (TextureImage[0]) // If Texture Exists { if (TextureImage[0]->data) // If Texture Image Exists { free(TextureImage[0]->data); } free(TextureImage[0]); } return Status; // Return The Status } // end of LoadGLTextures()

  36. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (7) 6) defefine 2D texture font building function BuildFont() GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) { float cx; // Holds Our X Character Coord float cy; // Holds Our Y Character Coord base=glGenLists(256); // Creating 256 Display Lists glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); // Select Our Font Texture for (loop=0; loop<256; loop++) // Loop Through All 256 Lists { cx=float(loop%16)/16.0f; // X Position Of Current Character cy=float(loop/16)/16.0f; // Y Position Of Current Character glNewList(base+loop,GL_COMPILE); // Start Building A List … // Loop Until All 256 Are Built } // end of BuildFont()

  37. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (8) 6) defefine 2D texture font building function BuildFont() GLvoid BuildFont(GLvoid) { … glBegin(GL_QUADS); // Use A Quad For Each Character glTexCoord2f(cx,1-cy-0.0625f); // Texture Coord (Bottom Left) glVertex2i(0,0); // Vertex Coord (Bottom Left) glTexCoord2f(cx+0.0625f,1-cy-0.0625f); // Texture Coord (Bottom Right) glVertex2i(16,0); // Vertex Coord (Bottom Right) glTexCoord2f(cx+0.0625f,1-cy); // Texture Coord (Top Right) glVertex2i(16,16); // Vertex Coord (Top Right) glTexCoord2f(cx,1-cy); // Texture Coord (Top Left) glVertex2i(0,16); // Vertex Coord (Top Left) glEnd(); // Done Building Our Quad (Character) glTranslated(10,0,0); // Move To The Right Of The Character glEndList(); // Done Building The Display List } // Loop Until All 256 Are Built } // end of BuildFont()

  38. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (9) 7) defefine 2D texture font releasing function KillFont() GLvoid KillFont(GLvoid) { glDeleteLists(base,256); // Delete All 256 Display Lists } // end of KillFont() 8) define 2D texture font printing function glPrint() GLvoid glPrint(GLint x, GLint y, char *string, int set) { if (set>1) { set=1; } glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]); // Select Our Font Texture glDisable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); // Disables Depth Testing … } // end of glPrint()

  39. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (10) 8) define 2D texture font printing function glPrint() GLvoid glPrint(GLint x, GLint y, char *string, int set) { … glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); // Select The Projection Matrix glPushMatrix(); // Store The Projection Matrix glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Projection Matrix glOrtho(0,640,0,480,-1,1); // Set Up An Ortho Screen glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); // Select The Modelview Matrix glPushMatrix(); // Store The Modelview Matrix glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The Modelview Matrix glTranslated(x,y,0); // Position The Text (0,0 - Bottom Left) glListBase(base-32+(128*set)); // Choose The Font Set (0 or 1) glCallLists(strlen(string),GL_BYTE,string); // Write The Text To The Screen glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION); // Select The Projection Matrix glPopMatrix(); // Restore The Old Projection Matrix glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); // Select The Modelview Matrix glPopMatrix(); // Restore The Old Projection Matrix glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); // Enables Depth Testing } // end of glPrint()

  40. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (11) 9) load and enable the new 2D texture font setting up the OpenGL environment int InitGL(GLvoid) { if (!LoadGLTextures()) // Jump To Texture Loading Routine { return FALSE; // If Texture Didn't Load Return FALSE } BuildFont(); // Build The Font glClearColor(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); // Clear The Background Color To Black glClearDepth(1.0); // Enables Clearing Of The Depth Buffer glDepthFunc(GL_LEQUAL); // The Type Of Depth Test To Do glBlendFunc(GL_SRC_ALPHA,GL_ONE); // Select The Type Of Blending glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH); // Enables Smooth Color Shading glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D); // Enable 2D Texture Mapping return TRUE; // Initialization Went OK } // end of InitGL()

  41. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (12) 10) draw text int DrawGLScene(GLvoid) { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glEnable(GL_BLEND); // Enable Blending glLoadIdentity(); // Reset The View // Pulsing Colors Based On Text Position glColor3f(1.0f*float(cos(cnt1)),1.0f*float(sin(cnt2)),1.0f-0.5f*float(cos(cnt1+cnt2))); // Print GL Text To The Screen glPrint(int((280+250*cos(cnt1))),int(235+200*sin(cnt2)),"Module04",0); // Pulsing Colors Based On Text Position glColor3f(1.0f*float(sin(cnt2)),1.0f-0.5f*float(cos(cnt1+cnt2)),1.0f*float(cos(cnt1))); // Print GL Text To The Screen glPrint(int((280+230*cos(cnt2))),int(235+200*sin(cnt1)),"2D Texture Font",1); cnt1+=0.01f; // Increase The First Counter cnt2+=0.0081f; // Increase The Second Counter return TRUE; // Everything Went OK } // end of DrawGLScene()

  42. Drawing 2D texture OpenGL font (13) 11) properly release font GLvoid KillGLWindow(GLvoid) { … KillFont(); // release thefont } // end of KillGLWindow()

  43. Final result OpenGL 2D texture font

  44. Practice Open: Lab03 / BitmapFont2 / BitmapFont2.sln