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Sports Nutrition

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  1. Sports Nutrition Energy Balance Kevin Browne

  2. Learning outcomes

  3. Energy Balance • What does energy balance mean to you, in your own words individually write down what you understand by this term • Pair (agree and write down your new definition) • Share

  4. Energy Balance • Energy balance is a term used to explain how kilocalorie intake and kilocalorie expenditure are related to each other, and in particular how they can affect a person's body weight. • If a person is at their ideal weight, then for that person to maintain their weight, they would need to ensure kilocalorie intake (through food and drink) was equal to kilocalorie use (through normal body functions and activity).

  5. Energy balance equation • The energy balance equation is: • Energy Intake = Energy output • If energy balance was a see-saw, it would be at equal height on either side

  6. Energy in Energy out More energy is consumed (eaten) than used More energy is used than consumed (eaten) Click buttons to see effect

  7. Energy in Energy out More energy is consumed (eaten) than used More energy is used than consumed (eaten) Click buttons to see effect

  8. Energy out Energy in More energy is consumed (eaten) than used Energy consumed (eaten) is same as energy used More energy is used than consumed (eaten) Gains weight

  9. Energy in Energy out More energy is consumed (eaten) than used Energy consumed (eaten) is same as energy used More energy is used than consumed (eaten) Loses weight

  10. Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

  11. TASK • Looking at all the factors that could effect BMR • I want you to come up with suggestions as to how they could effect BMR • Work in pairs • 10mins

  12. Climate • Environmental conditions around a place where a person lives, trains and competes will have an effect on their Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). • Where the climate is cold the body will need to use more stored and consumed energy to help stay warm. Where the climate is very hot, the body will still need additional energy to help maintain a safe, cool core temperature

  13. Genetics • Each person has a pre-programmed genetic make-up which determines how they look, feel, speak and perform. Part of the genetics of a person will determine how they use energy, and so this has a direct influence on how many kilocalories are needed to function

  14. Some people are naturally more athletic than others and so have a greater muscle mass. As muscle uses energy to work, it is logical that a person with a high muscle mass will need more kilocalories in their diet to function • A person who already has a large amount of body fat will need to eat less consumed kcal because of their fat stores.

  15. Age • As a person becomes older, their need for kilocalories declines. This is particularly true once a person reaches 25 years of age. At this point, the body will have fully matured and so will not need kilocalories for development

  16. Gender • Adult men usually have less body fat and more muscle than women of the same age and size. Muscle burns more calories than fat does, so men's need for energy is usually 5-10% higher than women's

  17. Metabolism

  18. Physical activity • A very active person will naturally need to consume more kilocalories to ensure that they maintain the energy balance, while a person who very rarely exercises will need very few additional kilocalories in order to maintain energy balance. • To help calculate the total daily kilocalories a person needs, the Physical Activity Level (PAL) identifies how many additional kilocalories a person will have to consume to meet the demands of their lifestyle. T • he additional kilocalories are identified as a percentage that is added on to the basal metabolic rate, giving an idea of the amount of kilocalories needed for that person every day.

  19. Cont… • The actual amount of kilocalories expended during sport/exercise depends on lots of different factors including: • Frequency - how often a person trains/competes • Intensity - how hard a person trains/competes • Time / duration - how long a person trains/competes for • Type of sport/exercise - different activities use different amounts of energy

  20. Calculating BMR • So, to calculate a person's daily kilocalorie requirement who is moderately active and weight 70kg: • BMR ( weight (Kg) x 25Kcal • BMR ( 70 x 25 = 1750Kcal • Daily Kilocalorie requirement ( 1750Kcal + 50% (PAL) = 2625Kcal

  21. What is Basal metabolic rate? The Basal Metabolic Rate How is this calculated? Men = 1 calorie / kg of bodyweight / hr • Women = 0.9 calorie / kg of bodyweight / hr • E.g: A man weighing 84kg would calculate his BMR as: • 1 x 84kg x 24 hrs = 2016 basal caloric needs. • N.B. This calculation is just an estimate. BMR: The rate at which the body uses energy for maintenance activities

  22. How can we make the calculation more accurate? The Harris Benedict equation for BMR: For men: BMR = 66 + (13.7 x wt [kg]) + (5 x ht [cm]) – (4.7 x age [yrs]) For Women: BMR = 655 + (9.6 x wt [kg]) + (1.8 x ht [cm]) – (4.7 x age [yrs]) E.g. A man weighing 84kg, 180cm in height, & 40 years old would calculate: BMR = 66 + (13.7 x 84 [kg]) + (5 x 180 [cm]) – (4.7 x 40 [yrs]) = 66 + 1150.8 + 900 – 272 = 1844.8 calories Task Calculate your BMR using this formula SBN May 2009 AS Physical Education

  23. Questions • Calculate the BMR of an adult male weighing 90kg • Calculate the BMR of an adult female weighing 65kg • Calculate the BMR of an adult male who weighs 84kg, is 32 years old and 184cm tall • Calculate the BMR of an adult female who weighs 57kg, is 27 years old and 165cm SBN May 2009 AS Physical Education

  24. Learning outcomes Review • To know and understand what Basal metabolic rate is • Identify factors that can effect BMR • Explain how these factors affect BMR • Calculate BMR using a simple equation