Int. to Electrical-Electronics Engineering Asst. Prof. Dr. Alper ŞİŞMAN
Outline • Short history of EEE • Fundemental physical laws in EE • Branches of EEE • Engineering ethics • Preparing CV • Preparing presentations
Short History • Miletus, Ancient greek philosopher and mathematician, discovered the electrifying effect of amber. (Satatic electric) B.C. 600 • William Gilbert, English physician, discovered the matrials (Electrica) and becomes inventor of the term of the electricity. He proposed the relation between static electric and magnetic forces (1601). • Otto von Guericke, Mayor of Magdeburger, designed a Electric machine for the demonstration of the effect of cosmic forces. Using hollow copper spheres and an air pump of his own construction, Guericke demonstrated that a partial vacuum could be created by pumping the air out of the sphere. He also proved that the air remaining in the sphere ( at a pressure below that of the atmosphere ) was distributed evenly throughout the vessel. Consequently he used a piston in a cylinder and he also showed that when a vacuum was created on one side of the piston, the atmosphere would move the piston and a considerable mass through a distance, thus performing work. This became the basic principle of the Newcomen steam engine ( 1712 ).
Benjamin Franklin , American politician, writer and scientist prove the electrical nature of the thunderstorms. (1752) • James Watt, Scottish engineer and inventor, improved the steam engine by invention of the condenser. (1765) • Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist, demonstrates Napoleon for the first time a galvanic item, a type electrical battery. • Humphrey Davy, English chemist, leaves metal wires glowing and produces sparks between two coal staffs. (1801)
Siméon Daniel Poisson, French mathematician and physicist, formulates the potentialtheorie of the electricity. (1811) • Humphrey Davy produces a continuous electrical arc with a giant battery, consisting of 1000 items, for the first time. (1813) • Hans Christian Oersted, Dane, discovers the magnetic effect of wires. This effect was described in the same year by André Marie Ampère, Jean Baptiste Biot und Felix Sovart. (1820)
Professor Johann Salomon ChristophSchweigger, German, invents the galvanometer, thus the current becomes measurable • Michael Faraday, English physicist and chemist, builds a first, simple model of an electric motor. • André Marie Ampère, French physicist and mathematician, finds the formula for the force effect of two currents (Ampèr law).
Georg Simon Ohm, German physicist, defines the electrical resistance as relation of voltage and amperage (Ohm' law). (1826) • Faraday formulates the induction law and creates thereby the theoretical bases to the building of transformers • William Ritchie builds a generator with rotary coils and fixed magnets. (1833) • Moritz Hermann Jacobi, German engineer, demonstrated a boat, which is propelled with an electric motor.
James Prescott Joule, Britain, points experimentally the heat equivalent from electricity after (already 2 years beforehand it formulated the Joule law) (1842) • Léon Foucault, French physicist, succeeds for the first time the building to an useful arc lamp (automatically adjustable Carbon rods). • James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish physics professor, justifies modern electrodynamics by a mathematical formulation of the field model of Farraday. (1855)
The first transatlantic cable for a connection between Europe and the USA is laid. (1858) • Alexander Graham Bell, American deaf-mute teacher and inventor, announces the first useful telephone to the patent. (1876) • Edison demonstrates the first until 45 hours burning coal thread lamps. (1879) • In London drives the first electrically operated underground locomotive .(1890)
Friedrich Wilhelm Schindler-Jenny shows the first electrified kitchen on the world exhibition in Chicago • Lee de Forest, American radio engineer and Robert von Lieben, Austrian physicist, invent the electron tube, which enables the building of amplifiers. (1906) • The first refrigirator,1910 • The company Osram presents at the world exhibition in Paris the first fluorescent lamps. (1936) • Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, German physicists, discovered principle of the nuclear fission.(1938)
The large computer " ENIAC " in the USA operates with 14,468 electron tubes (1947) • IBM presents its first electronics computer SSEC, consisting of 12,500 tubes and 21400 relays. • John Bardeen and walter Houser Brattain, American physicists, discovered the transistor effect. This led to a new technology and a miniaturization of electrical apparatuses and devices. (Bell Laboratries) (1948)
Establishment of the international union for the coordination of the production and the feed of electricity (UCPTE). • 1953, First regular television broadcasts. • 1954, The first programming languages for computers are developed. • In the company Bell Laboratories is discovered the solar cell principle. • First performance nuclear reactors of the world in operation in the USA (submarine " Nautilus ") and in Obninsk (USSR). • First commercial nuclear power station is switched on (9MW).
The IBM-305-Computer RAMAC is the first computer with magnetic plate storage. • 1960 Theodore Harold Maiman, American physicist, designs a ruby laser and produces for the first time laser light. • The American company Intel places a microprocessor with the designation 4004 for the first time forwards (2300 transistors, 256 byte ROM, 32 bits RAM). 1973 • The personnel computer era begins (Intel microprocessor 8080)