1. Asking and Giving Permission Expressions Responses Asking for Permission Can I stay up until the end of the program?(“can is the most informal”) Could I pay by check? (“could” is generally used for formal and informal occasions) May I borrow your pen?(“may” is a little more formal than “could”) Do you mind if I leave the office earlier? Would you mind if I take a day off tomorrow? Giving Permission Yes, please Of course OK Certainly. Oh, never mind By all means. Sure It doesn’t matter
Giving Permission Refusing to give permission “May/Can” is used for permission in the present or future time. You may leave the office. He can take a day off whenever he wants. “Might/Could is used for past and conditional permission. He said we could leave. He said we might leave. No, thank you. No, you may not. I’m sorry you can’t. No., thanks. You cannot. I’m afraid not. I’m sorry, I … Sorry.
2. Expressing Requests and Commands Expressions Responses Can you close the window? Could you leave the door open, please? Would you please give me a hand? Would you mind going outside for a moment? Would you mind not touching the TV? Positive responses: Of course. OK/All right. Sure. Not at all. Certainly. Negative responses: I am sorry I … Certainly not. Of course not.
3. Offering something Expressions Responses Shall I open the window? Would you like to try this new machine? Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to have something to drink? Do you want something to eat? Positive responses Yes, please. Yes, I’d love to. Thank you very much. Certainly. Negative responses No, thank you. No, thanks. I am sorry, I …
4. Making Suggestions Expressions Responses Would you like to go with me tonight? Shall we go to the library tomorrow? Let’s have lunch. Why don’t we go together? How about watching “Eclipse”? What about asking your father for help? What do you suggest to eat? What would you like to do tonight? What shall we do tonight? Positive responses: Yes, that’s a marvelous idea. That would be nice. That sounds good to me. Negative responses: I don’t think so. No, I can’t. I don’t think I can. I don’t really feel like (going to the cinema). I’d rather not, if you don’t mind. Well, I’m not sure. I don’t really like that.
5. Giving Advice Expressions Responses I don’t think you should do that job. You ought to read more. You ought not to work so hard. If I were you, I don’t find another job. If I were in your position, I’d take a chance. If I were in your shoes, I’ d meet my friend in Jakarta. You had better study hard. You shouldn’t spend a lot of money. Whatever you do, don’t work so hard. Positive responses: Yes, that’s a good idea. Yes, that’s a marvelous idea. That would be nice. That sound good to me. Negative responses: I don’t think so. No, I can’t. I don’t think I can. I don’t really feel like (going to cinema) I’d rather not, if you don’t mind. Well, I’m not sure, I don’t really like it.
6. Making Invitations Expressions Responses What are you doing next Saturday? We’re having a barbecue party. Would you like to come? Are you free next Monday? Are you doing anything to night? Would you be interested in coming to the music concert with me tomorrow? Do you fancy going out for a meal on the weekend? Positive responses: I’d love to, thanks. That’s very kind of you, thanks. That sound lovely, thanks. What a great idea, thanks. Negative responses: That’s very kind of you, but I’m doing something else on Saturday. Well, I’d love to, but I’ve already gone to the music concert. I’m really sorry, but I’ve got something else to do. I really don’t think I can. I’m supposed to be doing something else.
7. Complaining Expressions Responses I’m sorry I have to say this, but I think the air conditioning in my room doesn’t work properly. I’m sorry to bother you, but I think there’s something wrong with my computer. Maybe you forgot to give me my change. I think you might have forgotten to repair my electricity. Excuse me if I’m out of line, but the television in my room is broken. There may have been a misunderstanding about the holiday plan. I’m afraid I have to make a complaint. Some stuff has gone missing from my room. When people apologize, they normally say “sorry” and offer to put situation right. I’m sorry, I’ll get someone to check it for you. Sorry to hear that, I’ll send someone up.
8. Expressing Agreement and Disagreement Agreeing Disagreeing I think you’re right. I agree with you. Strong Agreement I couldn’t agree with you more. You’re absolutely right. I’m not sure I agree with you. (I’m afraid) I don’t agree. (I’m afraid) I disagree. (I’m afraid) I can’t agree with you. (I’m afraid) I don’t share your opinion. I don’t think so.
9. Asking and Giving Directions Expressions Responses Excuse me, is there a post office around here? Can you tell me how to get to the nearest market? Where’s the ‘Santosa’ Bank? How do I get to the hospital? What’s the best way to the library/ Yes, there’s one across the street. Sorry, I don’t live around here. It’s on the corner of Veteran and Gajah Mada Street. Just go along this street, turn right at the first crossroad, the hospital is on your right, next to the library. Go straight ahead (until you come to …) Turn back/go back. Turn left/right. Go along … Cross …. Take the first/second road on the left/right. It’s on the left/right.
10. Conditional Sentences Conditional Sentences Type I Conditional sentences type I use a structure for talking about possibilities in the present or in the future. The pattern is: if + simple present, will (future) • If I have a lot of money, I will go to Egypt. • If it’s sunny, we’ll go to the beach. • If you cook dinner, I’ll clean the house.
Conditional Sentences Type II Conditional sentences type II use a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future. The pattern is: if + simple past, conditional I (would + Infinitive) • If I had a lot of money, I would go to Egypt. (Since I do not have a lot of money, I cannot go to Egypt). • If I were you, I would buy that motorcycle.
Conditional Sentences Type III Conditional sentences type III use a structure for talking about unreal situations in the past. In other words, it is used to talk about things which DID NOT HAPPEN in the past. The pattern: if + past perfect, conditional III ( would + have + past participle) • If I had had a lot of money, I would have gone to Egypt (but I didn’t have it, and so I didn’t go to Egypt) • If you had driven more carefully, you wouldn’t have had an accident. • If I had known her address, I would have gone to her house
11. Expressions of Making and Handling Reservations Making a reservation I would like to reserve a single ticket to Makasar. I would like to reserve a night flight to Medan. I am going to book a double room this weekend. Can I reserve a table for two for lunch? Could I make a reservation for my trip to Bali next week? Can I book a train seat for tomorrow morning?
Handling a Reservation Yes, sir/madam. What sort of room do you need? Certainly. When would you like to go, sir? I’m sorry to inform you that all our rooms have been reserved. Sorry, I am afraid to inform you that all our tables have been booked.
12. Expressions Dealing with the Telephone Conversation In the Beginning Formal Hello, it’s … (mention your name or the company you’re working with). May I help you? Good morning/afternoon … (you name/the company you’re working with). What can I do for you? Informal Hello, it’s …(name), who is this? Hello, it’s …(name), is it …(name)? Hello, it’s …(name), is … (name) there? Hello, … (name) speaking.
In Handling Telephone Calls Ani speaking. Can I help you? Who’s calling, please? This is Sari from Indonesia. Can I leave a message? I am sorry, the line is busy. Can I have your number? Can I speak to Mr. Brown, please? Just a moment, please. Do you want to hold on or call back later? Can you ask him to call me back? Can I take a message?
In the End Nice talking to you. Thank you for calling. Bye. May I call you later? Yes, sure. Bye. Sure. Bye.
13. Expressions Used in Handling Guests In General Can I help you? What can I do for you, madam/sir? Would you like me to … ? Please sit down. In a hotel Welcome to our hotel. I am sure you will enjoy your stay here. We have some facilities for our guests. What sort of room do you need? Which room do you prefer, a single or double bed? I am sorry, all our rooms are booked. We have no vacant rooms at all.
In a restaurant Welcome to our restaurant. I hope you enjoy the food. We have a special menu today. What would you like to order? What kind of food do you like? How about a drink? Would you like something for dessert?
In a travel agency We have some tour programs to Bali. Please report to us an hour before your departure. We have special package tour for the next holiday. What sort of ticket do you need? Which ticket do you prefer, a single or round trip? What seat would you like, an economy or exccutive one?
14. Talking about Comparison • The comparative from of adjective is used to compare two things. • A car is fast. It’s faster than a bicycle. • Your garden is beautiful. It’s more beautiful than mine. • One syllable adjectives and two syllables adjectives that end with “-y” use “-er” in the comparative form. • Big – bigger, old – older, pretty – prettier, happy - happier
Most other two syllables adjectives and adjective s of three or more syllables don’t use”-er” in the comparative form. They use”-more”. • Beautiful – more beautiful, comfortable – more comfortable, difficult – more difficult, interesting – more interesting • When two things are compared to a group of three or more things, superlative form of adjectives is used. • Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. • This is the most expensive computer in the store.
A superlative adjective is always preceded by the. • One syllable adjectives and adjectives that end with”-y” use”-est” in the superlative form. • High –the highest, old-the oldest, shiny-the shiniest, easy-the easiest • Most other two syllables adjectives and adjectives of three or more syllables don’t use”-est”. They use “most” in the superlative form. • Expensive-the most expensive, delicious-the most delicious, boring-the most boring.