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EXAMPLE COURSE. EXAMPLE COURSE. How to Find Your Way Around…. 1. You can play the PowerPoint, and find the Test here. 2. You can minimise this column and make the main page bigger by clicking this icon. Click it again to bring it back.
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EXAMPLE COURSE EXAMPLE COURSE How to Find Your Way Around… 1. You can play the PowerPoint, and find the Test here 2. You can minimise this column and make the main page bigger by clicking this icon. Click it again to bring it back. 3. Always click this ‘Home’ icon to save your progress and log off. This is very important! EXAMPLE COURSE 4. To progress through the slides please left click on your mouse
Introduction The main piece of law governing Health & Safety is: The Health & Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 This Act defines responsibilities and duties for all people at work and provides a system for other Health & Safety law (Regulations) to fit into. The Fit For Work module is designed to encourage and promote safe working practices which help you to look after your health. To remain safe you should: be aware of the risks involved in certain activities; ensure that you use equipment that has been provided to assist you in your work; to operate equipment, and handle materials according to health and safety guidelines. FIT FOR WORK COURSE OBJECTIVES On completion of the Fit for Work lesson you will be able to understand the: • Describe why an awareness of health and safety issues in the workplace is important • Demonstrate how to lift, carry and deposit an inanimate load safely • Describe how to adjust seating position and posture whilst using display screen equipment • Identify dangers associated with using hazardous chemicals • Take appropriate measures to relieve stress and fatigue whilst carrying out certain tasks.
Ergonomics What is Ergonomics? In it's simplest term ergonomics is the study of people in relation to their working environment. This means how you and the things around you at work fit together. To ensure efficient operation and to avoid strain and injury, you and your workplace environment must be arranged, organised, and designed. In this section we shall help you to understand ergonomics at work.
Scenario Jane works in a busy Admin office. She is only 5‘0" tall and all her colleagues are much taller. The photocopier paper is always kept on a high shelf which is easily reached by Jane’s taller colleagues. But whenever Jane needs to refill the copier, it's a struggle to reach paper and she often has to stand on her tiptoes to reach. What should she do? • Stand on a chair? • Ask someone else to get it down for her? • Knock it down with a umbrella? • Ask for the shelf to be lowered? • Keep the paper elsewhere? From these options it may seem very clear what the correct course of action is but it also shows that some options are dangerous and some may cause injury. But it also demonstrates that this is not a very efficient way to run an office.. The 'fit' between the person and their working environment needs to be addressed. A basic understanding of ergonomics within your workplace can improve your work routine. Ergonomic solutions can often be simple to make such as altering the height of a chair can make a difference
What can it do? • By applying ergonomics within the workplace it has the potential for reducing:- • Accidents; • Potential for injury or ill health; • It can also lead to improved performance and productivity. • Ergonomics will also reduce the potential for ill health at work, such as aches and pains of the wrists, shoulders and back by considering the layout of your working equipment and how objects and work tools should be positioned in relation to how they are used. For example items used most often should be placed where they are easy to reach and use reducing the need for stooping, stretching etc. • Failure to observe ergonomic principles may have serious repercussions, not only for individuals, work colleagues, their families, but also for the Trust.
What can I do? • If you find a problem the next step is to look for the cause and consider possible solutions. A slight alteration may be all that is necessary to make a task easier and safer to perform. Here are some examples:- • Use adjustable chairs so individuals can work at their seating position • Remove any obstacles from under desks to create sufficient leg room • Arrange items stored on shelving so that those that are the heaviest are between waist and shoulder height • Change shift work patterns; • Rotation of different tasks to reduce physical and mental fatigue. • Talk to colleague and get them to suggest ideas and discuss possible solutions. Involve employees from the start of any process - this will help facilitate any changes. • Always make sure that any alterations are properly evaluated by the people who do the job. Be aware that a change introduced to solve one problem does not create another.
Ergonomics is normally known for resolving problems that are more physical in its nature. For example, ensuring that desking is high enough to allow adequate clearance for a individuals legs. However, ergonomics also deals with psychological and social aspects of the individual and their work. For example, a workload that is too high or too low, or not having clear and defined tasks, time pressures, inadequate training, and poor social support can all contribute to having negative effects on the individual and their work. • The following are some examples of ‘typical’ ergonomic problems that can be found and addressed in the workplace:- • Display screen equipment • Manual handling • Work-related stress • Managing the working day
Continue Problems attributed to poor ergonomics may result in mistakes being made at work? True False
Display Screen Equipment considerations • Is the screen poorly positioned – is it too high/low/close/far from the worker, or is offset to one side? • Is the mouse too far away and is it stretching to use? • Is the chairs properly adjusted to fit the person, or is it awkward and causing uncomfortable postures? • Is there is glare on the screen from overhead lights or windows, as this will increasing the risk of eyestrain? • Is the Hardware and/or software suitable for the task or the person using it, or is it causing frustration and distress? • Remember to take enough breaks or changes of activity? If any of the above problems are not dealt with it may result in mistakes and poor productivity, or stress, eye strain, headaches and other aches or pains. The correct set up is demonstrated in the picture.
Manual Handling Considerations • Is the load heavy and/or bulky, placing unreasonable demands on the person? • Does the load have to be lifted from the floor and/or above the shoulders? • Does the task involves frequent repetitive lifting? • Does the task cause an awkward posture, such as bending or twisting? • Can the load be gripped properly? • Is the task performed on an uneven, wet, or sloping floor? • Is the task is performed under time pressure and have too few rest breaks? • Any of the above if not addressed may result in physical injuries such as low back pain or injury to the arms, hands, or fingers. The problems may also contribute to the risk of slips, trips, and falls.
Work related stress Considerations • Are work demands too high or too low? • Has the employee have little say in how they organise their work? • Is there poor support from management and/or colleagues? • Are there conflicting demands, e.g. high productivity and quality? Any poor control of the risks causing work-related stress could lead to ill health and therefore reduced performance and productivity.
Scenario Sheila works on a conveyor assembly line. In her job she has to use her hands to pick up and fill small boxes of goods ready to dispatch to retail outlets. The assembly line makes and dispatches 800 boxes a day and it takes approximately 30 seconds to pack each box. As well as the risk from repetitive strain, Sheila often had to adopt poor postures to reach the goods for packing. She had to repeatedly stretch out her arm and constrain her posture while packing. After some time on the job, Sheila found she was leaving work with shoulder and wrist pain. One tea break, Sheila’s line manager saw her rubbing her neck and wrists and recognised the pain could be due to the type of work she was doing. The line manager told the company health and safety representative about what she had seen. Considering Sheila’s problem, think about what actions her employers could take to improve the work area?
What the Company Implemented • Whilst considering the possibly actions if you thought of any of the following then well done. • They modified the workplace layout and allowed workers better access to the conveyor, so they didn’t need to adopt poor working postures. • They introduced grab tools that allowed the gathering of the goods which reduced the repetitive movements. • They implemented a job rotation scheme whereby five workers on the line were moved around a number of different tasks. This now completes the Ergonomics part of the training
Display Screen Equipment It is very likely that, in the course of your work, you have to use a computer, keyboard, mouse and Screen or monitor (referred to as a Visual Display Unit or VDU). However to minimise any risks in using this equipment your employer must ensure that workplace, desks and jobs are well designed. As a user of the equipment you are also responsible for use of the equipment and resources provided to you correctly. In this section we will look at how you can work safely and avoid injury while using equipment of this type.
What can I do? To make full use of the equipment provided, you will need to adjust your workstation to get the best from it and to avoid any potential health problems. Firstly set up your workstation properly to make this as comfortable as possible. The following slides will help you see how best to set up your workstation properly and then complete the Trusts Risk assessment that you will be able to print, sign and give it to your manager.
As a broad guide, your forearms should be approximately horizontal and your eyes the same height as the top of the VDU. Make sure you have enough work space to take whatever documents or other equipment you need. Please Note Make sure that your chair has five spokes to its base. Older models with only four spokes are dangerous and should be withdrawn. Adjust your chair and screen to find the most comfortable position for your work. Look beneath the seat of your chair for adjustment controls for lift, tilt and back height.
Continue Your eyes should be level with the top of the VDU screen to avoid neck and eye strain? True False
Try different arrangements of keyboard, screen, mouse and documents to find the best arrangement for you. A document holder may help you avoid awkward neck and eye movements. Arrange your desk and VDU to avoid glare, or bright reflections on the screen. This will be easiest if neither you nor the screen is directly facing windows or bright lights. Adjust curtains or blinds to prevent unwanted light.
Make sure there is space under your desk to move your legs freely. Move any obstacles such as boxes or equipment. Avoid excess pressure from the edge of your seat on the backs of your legs and knees. A footrest may be helpful, particularly for smaller users Position the mouse within easy reach, so it can be used with the wrist straight. Sit upright and close to the desk, so you don’t have to work with your mouse arm stretched. Support your forearm on the desk, and don’t grip the mouse too tightly. Use a mouse mat with wrist support if required. Rest your fingers lightly on the buttons and do not press them hard.
Adjust the brightness and contrast controls on the screen to suit lighting conditions in the room & make sure the screen surface is clean. When setting up and working on any applications, adjust the settings so text is large enough to read easily on your screen. Individual characters on the screen should be sharply focused and should not flicker or move. Adjust your keyboard to get a good keying position. A space in front of the keyboard is sometimes helpful for resting the hands and wrists when not keying. Try to keep your wrists straight when keying. Keep a soft touch on the keys and don't overstretch your fingers. Good keyboard technique is important.
Don’t sit in the same position for long periods. Make sure you change your posture as often as practicable. Some movement is desirable, but avoid repeated stretching to reach things you need (if this happens a lot, rearrange your workstation). Most jobs provide opportunities to take a break from working on a screen. Make use of them. If there are no such natural breaks in your job, your employer should plan for you to have rest breaks. Frequent short breaks are better than fewer long ones.
Answers to some common questions from VDU users: “Are aches and pains caused by using a VDU? What about RSI”? Some users may get aches and pains in their hands, wrists, arms, neck, shoulders or back, especially after long periods of uninterrupted VDU work. ‘Repetitive strain injury’ (RSI) has become a popular term for these aches, pains and disorders, but can be misleading - it means different things to different people. A better medical name for this whole group of conditions is ‘upper limb disorders’. Usually these disorders do not last, but in a few cases they may become persistent or even disabling. “Can work with VDUs affect eyesight”? Extensive research has found no evidence that VDUs can cause disease or permanent damage to eyes . However long spells of VDU work can lead to tired eyes and discomfort. Also, by giving your eyes more demanding tasks, it might make you aware of an eyesight problem you had not noticed before. You and your employer can help your eyes by ensuring your VDU is well positioned and properly adjusted, and that the workplace lighting is suitable. Ask for an eye test if you still think there is a problem.
“Can VDU work cause headaches”? • Headaches may result from several things that occur with VDU work, such as: • screen glare • poor image quality • a need for different spectacles • stress from the pace of work • anxiety about new technology • reading the screen for long periods without a break • poor posture • or combination of these. • Many of these things can easily be put right once the cause of the problem has been found. The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 implement an EC Directive and came into effect from January 1993. The Regulations require employers to minimise the risks in VDU work by ensuring that workplaces and jobs are well designed.
The Regulations apply where staff habitually use VDUs as a significant part of their usual work. Other people, who use VDUs only occasionally, are not covered by the requirements in the Regulations (apart from the workstation requirements). However, their employers still have general duties to protect them under other health and safety at work legislation. If you work from home – Are you covered? Yes, the Regulations apply even if you are an employee working at home, and habitually using a VDU for a significant part of your usual work.
And before we leave this subject, don't forget about your other piece of display screen equipment - your eyesight ! Have it checked regularly for your general health and safety. If you use a computer for work your employer may also pay towards your eye test. This now completes the DSE part of the training
Manual Handling What is Manual Handling? A good definition of Manual Handling is, the transporting or supporting of a load, including lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving of a load. More than a third of all over-three-day injuries reported each year to the Health & Safety Executive and local authorities are caused by manual handling - the transporting or supporting of loads by hand or by bodily force. Manual handling injuries account for approximately 40% of all general workplace reported injuries. However, these only represent the tip of a very large pyramid. For every injury that is reported there is an estimated 10 additional injuries that have not and approximately 200 near misses.
What does the law say? This is covered by the Health and Safety at Work Act etc 1974 which aims to make the workplace as safe as reasonably possible for staff and anyone affected by their work and puts requirements on both employers and employees. Along with Manual Handling Operations Regulation 1992 there are other regulations that also come under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 that are also relevant.
Manual Handling Operations Regulation 1992 • The Regulations require employers to: • avoid the need for hazardous manual handling, so far as is reasonably practicable; • assess the risk of injury from any hazardous manual handling that can ’t be avoided; • reduce the risk of injury from hazardous manual handling, so far as is reasonably practicable. • review risk assessment regularly • But Employees have duties too. • They are: • follow appropriate systems of work laid down for their safety; • make proper use of equipment provided for their safety; • co-operate with their employer on health and safety matters; • inform the employer if they identify hazardous handling activities; • take care to ensure that their activities do not put others at risk.
Risk Assessment – the difference between a hazard and a risk Central to understanding the risk assessment process is the difference between a hazard and a risk. In everyday language these terms are used to express the same thing. For example, 'that was hazardous' and 'that was risky'. In risk assessments however they have distinct and different meanings. A Hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm. Trailing leads, confined spaces, water on the floor are all examples of a hazard. A Risk is the chance or probability of harm occurring from a hazard and takes into account the likely seriousness of the injury or incident should it occur. For example an identical trip hazard such as a box is a higher risk on stairs than it is in the corner of a seldom used store room.
Continue When lifting a load , twisting and lifting at the same time is better than turning by moving the feet? True False
The Risk Assessment Process in Manual Handling - TILEE We often undertake risk assessments in everyday life, for example driving a car and crossing a road. These assessments are of course informal, not structured and certainly not written down! When completing a manual handling risk assessment it is useful to have a structured approach so that hazards are easier to see and risks are easier to control. In manual handling the risk assessment must consider the hazards and risks in the following areas: E L E I T
Risk Assessment – • Individual (you and me) • Are you fit enough to do the task or do you have an injury or a medical condition that might prevent you from applying best practice techniques? • Are you pregnant ? • Are you trained and confident to undertake this particular task? • Have you read the moving and handling plan? • Are you familiar with any equipment used in the workplace? • Task • Things (risk factors) to consider about the Task • How is the task currently performed? • How long does the task take? • Is our posture compromised? • When and how often is it done? • Is there sufficient rest between this task and the next? T I L E E • Load • The load is central to the task. • We would assess the following factors about the load: • Its weight • Its size and shape (how easy is it to handle) • Does it have suitable handles? • Is it evenly balanced • Is there anything inside the load that could move and shift the centre of balance? • Are there any sharp edges and should we wear suitable gloves and clothing (at work this would be Personal Protective Equipment PPE) • Environment • Is there enough space for the task? This includes you, your colleagues and any equipment • Are there problems in the design are the doorways and corridors too narrow or is the shape of the environment awkward? • Is there anything on the floor that you might slip or trip on? • Is it too hot or too cold which might impair your grip or cause fatigue? • Is your environment very busy, noisy or distracting? • Equipment • Does the Task require equipment, for example a trolley or sack barrow and if so…. • Is it available when needed? • Is the equipment safe and serviced and maintained? • Is everyone trained and competent in using the equipment? • Is it compatible with the environment i.e. too big or small for the room for example
In Regards to Work Equipment Used Remember……. • It must be…….. • suitable for the intended purpose • safe for use and maintained in a safe condition • used by people who have received adequate training and instruction • fitted with adequate guards and warning signs where appropriate. • And we must use it for the intended purpose, sensibly and safely and in accordance with any training received Moving and Handling Forms Are available from the Trusts Intranet within the Policies and Procedures section
A Quick Anatomy Lesson The human spine consists of 32 individual bones (vertebrae) that are stacked one on top of another to form a flexible column. Viewed from the side the spine has a series of curves which act like a spring to protect our heads from the forces generated by walking and jumping. What are the different structures that form the spine? (Intervertebral) disc - Are flat, round discs that act as shock absorbers and physical spacers to separate the vertebrae to allow room for the spinal nerves to exit the spine. The discs also allow the spine to be flexible. The facet joints - are paired joints at the back of the spine which direct and limit the range of movement between vertebrae. The Vertebrae (individual spinal bones) - gives the spine shape and structure, transmits weight and forces as acts as attachment points for the discs, muscles and ligaments Ligaments - are tough bands of tissue that surround the facet joints and also pass between the bodies of the vertebrae. Ligaments help limit movement and they hold everything together Spinal Muscles - like all muscles these provide the power to move bones, in this case the vertebrae. These muscles are small, delicate and weak (when compared with the large leg muscles) and form a network that runs the length of the spine. Our leg muscles are much more powerful and better suited for the power of lifting. Tendons - are non contractile bands that join the muscles to the bone. These are needed because they take up less space on the bone. Remember - The spine is a very strong and flexible structure but only when used correctly ,it can be prone to injury if misused.
Summary Do Not Jerk Keep Close to the Load Recommended Loads
Small children lift with a nice straight back and using the hips and knees to bend and for power because of their lack of balance and back muscle strength but this is the way that we are 'designed' to lift. The way that most adults move, lift and handle loads and objects is essentially a learned bad habit. This now completes the Manual Handling part of the training
STRESS What is Stress? Stress can become an issue for anyone at any level of business and research shows us that work related stress is quite widespread and is not confined to any particular sector, job or industry. The Health & Safety Executive defines stress as: "the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure or other types of demand placed on them". Pressure is part and parcel of all work and can help to keep us motivated. However exposure to excessive pressure can lead to stress which can then undermine performance, can be costly to employers and can make individuals ill. Stress is not an illness – But if stress becomes too excessive and prolonged, serious illness can develop.Work-related stress can affect us all at some time or another. Recognising it, preventing it, and doing something about it can help avoid mistakes, injury and illness.
Dealing with Issues Stress can be an unnoticed and gradual build up of the many pressures experienced in work, at home and in everyday life. Most people are able to cope with the big issues in life and can find them exciting but for some they are too demanding or combined with everything else going on, they can become overwhelming, resulting in stress. Many of life’s demands can cause stress, particularly work, relationships and money problems. And, when you feel stressed, it can get in the way of sorting out these demands, or can even affect everything you do. Stress can affect how you feel, think, behave and how your body works. In fact, common signs of stress include sleeping problems, sweating, loss of appetite and difficulty concentrating. You may feel anxious, irritable or low in self esteem, and you may have racing thoughts, worry constantly or go over things in your head. You may notice that you lose your temper more easily, drink more or act unreasonably.
Continue In some cases, prolonged stress can lead to physical and/or mental ill health? True False
Dealing with Issues Many of life’s demands beyond work can cause stress, particularly relationships and money problems. A person can experience more stress outside of the working day than during it, or vice versa and stress from one can affect the other. Finding the correct balance between work and all the demands, responsibilities and rewards of everyday life can be difficult. Conflicting demands are stressful and when you feel stressed it can get in the way of sorting out these demands or can even affect everything you do. The less control you have over potentially stress-inducing events and the more uncertainty they create, the more likely you are to feel stressed. Even the typical day-to-day demands of living can contribute to your body's stress response.
Recognising your Stress Triggers If you're not sure what's causing your stress, keep a diary and make a note of stressful episodes for two-to-four weeks. Then review it to spot the triggers. Take Action to Tackle Stress There's no quick-fix cure for stress, and no single method will work for everyone. However, there are simple things you can do to change the common life problems that can cause stress or make stress a problem. These include relaxation techniques, exercise and talking the issues through with someone. The Trust has many resources available that can be found on the Intranet, it also has a systematic and planned approach to promoting and supporting all staff. This is part of the Trust’s commitment to support work life balance and work force planning. Mental health issues, including stress, anxiety and depression, are the reason for one-in-five visits to a GP.
Take Action to Tackle Stress (cont’d) If you've tried self-help techniques and they aren't working, you should go to see your GP. They may suggest other coping techniques for you to try or recommend some form of counselling or cognitive behavioural therapy. Remember Stress can affect anyone This now completes the Stress part of the training please
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) What is COSHH? COSHH is the law that requires employers to control substances that can be hazardous to health. This section aims to give you an awareness of COSHH and help you to identify and deal with potential hazardous substances. Using chemicals or any other hazardous substances at work can put your own and other people's health at risk. The law requires employers to control exposure to hazardous substances to prevent ill health. These controls have to protect both employees and any other person who may be exposed to the substance by ensuring compliance with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH).
What is a hazardous substance? • A hazardous substance is defined as: "a substance with the potential to cause ill-health effects". • Examples of these are: • Chemicals - these are identified by orange hazard warning symbols on the container e.g. very toxic, toxic, harmful, corrosive etc. Care should be taken with any containers that are not marked! • Any substance that has been assigned a workplace exposure limit • Dusts can become hazardous in concentrated form • Biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites • Asphyxiates such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen • Carcinogens such as tobacco smoke or radon gas.
Substances may be hazardous not only due to their toxicity but also through the route of entry they take into the body. These routes may be: • Inhalation - breathing in vapours, gasses, dusts and fumes • Ingestion - eating or drinking substances or foods contaminated by hazardous substances • On or through the skin - contact with the skin can cause harm to the skin or substances can be absorbed into the body through the skin causing harm to internal organs. • Eyes - contact with the eyes by fumes, vapours, liquids and dusts. • Injection - liquids, solids or gasses through the skin either by puncture wounds or through cuts.
A chemical is not just something used by scientists in laboratories. Most people use chemicals as part of their job or at home every day. Cleaning products such as bleach and oven sprays are chemicals. So are paints, inks, glues, and oils. Most of the chemicals you might use at work are not dangerous if you use them properly and know what to do if something goes wrong (such as spillage). But some chemicals need more careful handling than others. Labels can help you identify the more hazardous chemicals, tell you what the dangers are, and how to avoid them. All substances must be stored correctly and segregated if necessary to control risks of fire.
A label can tell you a lot. Take a look at a typical label, you might find on a chemical used in the workplace. You will see that it gives basic information which alerts you to the dangers and precautions, and gives details about the supplier so you can get further advice. Look for the label on all chemicals you use. Any substances must be approved through a risk assessment before they can be used any where in the Trust. For further information about risk assessments please visit the Trust intranet
Manufacturers may also include 'instructions for use' either on the label, or on a leaflet supplied with the product. Suppliers must provide safety data sheets for dangerous chemicals used in the workplace. This is a detailed information sheet provided by chemical suppliers to their customers so that workers and the environment can be properly protected. First Aid instructions appear on most hazardous substances. You should familiarise yourself with these instructions before using rather than after an incident occurs.
Continue If there are no ‘Instructions for use’ on the label or supplied as a leaflet with the product, you should consult your manager or supplier for advice? True False
Each workplace should have a risk register of hazardous substances - ensure that you know where this is. If you have any questions about safety precautions for dangerous chemicals, ask your manager before using. For your own safety and the safety of those you work with, each time you use a chemical, pause for a moment and.. ALWAYS READ THE LABEL This now completes the COSHH part of the training