Reading #5:Consequences of the Civil Rights Movement -Affirmative Action & Forced Busing
Objective… - Describe how affirmative action policies address the inequalities of American society. - Describe the controversy surrounding affirmative action.
Positive change: African Americans benefited from desegregation & voting rights The problem: The pace of change was slow & frustrating to some people. Many businesses maintained discriminating hiring practices.
1965: “Affirmative Action” • Affirmative action is intended to promote equal opportunity for minority groups. The justification for affirmative action is that it helps to compensate for past discrimination. • LBJ issues E.O. 11246 which required federal contractors to hire without regard to race, religion & national origin. In 1968, gender was added to the anti-discrimination list.
1967: LBJ appoints Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court… • The NAACP lawyer who argued the Brown v. Board of Ed. case before the Supreme Court. • The Supreme Court's first African-American justice. • Supreme Court justice from 1967-1991
Affirmative Action Social justice or reverse discrimination? • Reverse discrimination is a term referring to discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group.
The Philadelphia Plan • The problem: LBJ’s plan lacked measurable outcomes ...How do we know affirmative action is happening? • Nixon issues the Philadelphia Plan in 1969 • The Philadelphia Plan requires goals established by time tables & quotas for hiring. It also applied to colleges and universities. ...Quotas: In both hiring and education a certain number of spots had to be reserved for minority candidates.
1971: Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Ed. • The goal: Regardless of race, all students must receive equal educational opportunities. • The Supreme Court ruled that students will be bused between districts to achieve integrated schools.