Comprehensive Exam Review Click the LEFT mouse key ONCE to continue
Professional Orientation Part 1 Click the LEFT mouse key ONCE to continue
History of the Helping Professions
Counseling shares many aspects with psychology but has evolved as a distinct profession in the United States. Counseling evolved from psychological, psychometric, vocational, and humanistic movements in the mid-20th Century.
Western psychotherapy evolved in Europe in the 19th and early 20th Century and was exported to the U.S. Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis as a "talking cure" for psychological illnesses. Alfred Adler and Carl Jung, among others, expanded on many psychoanalytic concepts. They emphasized the importance of early childhood experiences and unconsciousness in determining mental health and mental disorders.
Anna Freud, Erik Erikson, Karen Horney, and Erich Fromm developed Ego Psychology, which emphasized the importance of psychosocial development across the lifespan.. William James, John Watson, Albert Bandura, and B. F. Skinner established American behaviorism, which promoted the preeminence of behavior in determining mental health based on reflexive and respondent conditioning. Dollard and Miller expanded behaviorism to include social learning.
R. D. Lang, Victor Frankl, and Rollo May introduced existential psychotherapy based on the belief that persons have the capacity to self-actualize given optimal conditions. Carl Rogers developed client-centered and, later, person-centered therapy as a non-directive, humanistic counseling approach.
Rogers believed that creating certain conditions in counseling, including unconditional positive regard for the client, was both necessary and sufficient to affect positive psychological change. He later expanded his approach to include group therapy and encounter groups.
Frederich "Fritz" Perls and his wife, Laura Posner, developed Gestalt therapy as a confrontational means of getting clients to live in the here and now. Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck, and Donald Meichenbaum proposed irrational thinking as a cause of psychological distress and introduced Cognitive-Behavioral therapy, which proposes that thinking affects feelings and precedes actions.
Arnold Lazarus expanded the cognitive-behavioral approach into his Multi-Modal therapy, which looks at the contributions of a variety of senses and sources as contributing to psychological well-being. William Glasser and Robert Wubbolding developed Reality Therapy as a kind of cognitive behavioral approach emphasizing client commitment and responsibility. Glasser later expanded this approach to include control and choice theory.
School and vocational guidance helped form counseling as an approach and a profession. Jesse B. Davis, Eli Weaver, and Frank Parsons were instrumental in establishing school and vocational counseling in the U.S. at the beginning of the 20th century.
The National Defense Education Act of 1958 helped establish counseling in schools and provided funds for the training of counselors and counselor educators. More recently, counseling has been influenced by family therapy and the systemic approach, feminist therapy, brief and solution-focused therapy, and multicultural approaches to counseling.
Historical Highlights include: 1913 - National Vocational Guidance Association established 1931 - American College Personnel Association established 1940 - National Association of Guidance Supervisors established 1952 - American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) established 1959 - APGA (ACA) adopts ethical standards
1981 - Council for the Accreditation of • Counseling and Related Educational • Programs (CACREP) established • 1982 - National Board for Certified • Counselors (NBCC) established • 1983 - APGA becomes the American • Association for Counseling and • Development (AACD) • 1992 - AACD becomes the American • Counseling Association (ACA) • 1995 - ACA adopts revised Code of Ethics • and Standards of Practice
Professional Counselors are trained at the master's degree level, typically 60 semester hours, and are licensed in most states. They work in a variety of settings, including schools, clinics, agencies, health maintenance organizations, business and industry, and private practice.
Scope of practice includes the application of mental heath, psychological, or human development principles through cognitive, affective, behavioral, or systemic interventions or strategies that address wellness, personal growth, or career development, as well as pathology. In many states, Licensed Professional Counselors can administer psychological tests, diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, and be reimbursed for treatment by insurance providers.
Psychologists are usually trained and licensed at the doctoral level and work in a variety of settings. Their scope of practice is very broad and includes the administration of psychological tests and the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders, and they are reimbursed for treatment by insurance providers.
Psychiatrists are medical doctors who receive specialized psychiatric training and residency. Their scope of practice is similar to that of psychologists, but in addition, they can prescribe medication. They usually work in hospital settings and in private practice and can receive insurance reimbursement.
Psychoanalysts are psychotherapists who are trained in psychoanalysis at special institutes. Psychoanalysts may or may not have a doctoral degree and may or may not be licensed. They tend to see clients in private practice for long-term therapy.
Social Workers have a special concern for com-munity problems that may cause psychological problems. They have either a bachelor's or master's degree in social work and are licensed to practice in most states. They specialize in diagnosing and treating clients in their family and social context. They work in public institutions, health maintenance organizations, community agencies or in private practice, and they often can receive insurance reimbursement.
Psychiatric Nurses have received specialized training and residency in psychiatric treatment and are registered or licensed in all states. They work in hospitals and other health care institutions.
Psychotherapists typically are not regulated by licensure. Anyone can call himself or herself a psychotherapist. Typically, they are not eligible for insurance reimbursement unless they operate under another professional license.
Marriage and Family Therapists specialize in treating families, usually from a systemic perspective. They have certification or licensure in some states. In other states, marriage and family therapy is a specialty under other licensed professions, like counseling. They work in institutions or in private practice and often receive insurance reimbursement.
While there is considerable overlap in the training and practice of counselors and other helping professionals, counselors tend to emphasize mental health rather than mental illness and utilize counseling as a preventative treatment as well as remedial treatment. Counselors view clients holistically, recognizing the influence of a variety of factors on mental health, including gender, ethnicity, family, and culture.
The American Counseling Association (ACA) is the world's largest organization representing professional counselors. It is a non-profit association with a mission to promote public confidence and trust in the counseling profession.
ACA is an educational, scientific and professional organization whose members are dedicated to the enhancement of human development throughout the life span. Services and benefits to ACA Members include the opportunity to gain continuing education units, job searching and networking opportunities, professional liability insurance, counseling resources such as journals, books, and videotapes, and representation and advocacy such as lobbying.
ACA Divisions There are 15 chartered divisions within the American Counseling Association. These divisions provide leadership, resources and information unique to specialized areas, and/or principles of counseling.
Association for Assessment in Counseling (AAC) - Originally the Association for Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, AAC was chartered in 1965. The purpose of AAC is to promote effective assessment and evaluation in the counseling profession. Association for Adult Development and Aging (AADA) - Chartered in 1986, AADA serves as a focal point for information sharing, professional development, and advocacy related to adult development and aging issues, and addresses counseling concerns across the lifespan.
American College Counseling Association (ACCA) - ACCA is one of the newest divisions of the Amer-ican Counseling Association. Chartered in 1991, the focus of ACCA is to foster student develop-ment in colleges, universities, and community colleges. Association for Counselors and Educators in Government (ACEG) - Originally the Military Educators and Counselors Association, ACEG was chartered in 1984. ACEG is dedicated to counseling clients and families in local, state, and federal government or military-related agencies.
Association for Counselor Education and Super-vision (ACES) - Originally the National Associa-tion of Guidance and Counselor Trainers, ACES was a founding association of ACA in 1952. ACES emphasizes the need for quality education and supervision of counselors for all work settings. Association for Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues in Counseling (AGLBIC) - The focus of this division is to educate counselors to the unique needs of client identity development and a non-threatening counseling environment by aiding in reduction of negative stereotypes and prejudice.
Association for Humanistic Education and Development (AHEAD) - AHEAD, a founding association of ACA in 1952, provides a forum for the exchange of information about humanistical-ly-oriented counseling practices and promotes changes that reflect the growing body of know-ledge about humanistic principles applied to human development and potential. American Rehabilitation Counseling Association (ARCA) - Chartered in 1958, ARCA is concerned with helping people with physical, mental, or emotional disabilities to improve their lives.
Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) - Originally the Association for Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guid-ance, AMCD was chartered in 1972. AMCD strives to improve cultural, ethnic, and racial empathy and understanding by programs to advance and sustain personal growth. Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) - Chartered in 1973, ASGW provides professional leadership in the field of group work, establishes standards for professional training, and supports research and the dissemination of knowledge.
Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) - Originally the National Catholic Guidance Conference, ASERVIC was chartered in 1974. ASERVIC is devoted to professionals who believe that spiritual, ethical, religious, and other human values are essential to the full development of the person and to the discipline of counseling. International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors (IAMFC) - Chartered in 1989, IAMFC members help develop healthy family systems through prevention, education, and therapy.
National Career Development Association (NCDA) - Originally the National Vocational Guidance Association, NCDA was one of the founding asso-ciations of ACA in 1952. The mission of NCDA is to promote career development for all people across the lifespan through public information, member services, conferences, and publications. National Employment Counseling Association (NECA) - Originally the National Employment Counselors Association, NECA was chartered in 1966. The commitment of NECA is to offer professional leadership to people who counsel in employment and/or career development settings.
International Association of Addiction and Offender Counselors (IAAOC) - Originally the Public Offender Counselor Association, IAAOC was chartered in 1972. IAAOC members advocate development of effective counseling and rehabilitation programs for people with substance abuse and/or other addictions, and adult and/or juvenile public offenders.
ACA Branches ACA has 56 chartered branches in the U.S., Europe, and Latin America. In addition, many states and some countries have state and regional affiliates to ACA divisions, such as state-level school counseling or mental health counseling associations. Branches and affiliates offer local and regional workshops and conferences and keep members informed of local issues and opportunities.
ACA Affiliates Two former divisions of ACA have now separated and become free-standing professional organizations. However, although they are legally-separate entities, they retain close philosophical and professional ties to ACA.
American School Counselor Association (ASCA) - Chartered in 1953, ASCA promotes school coun-seling professionals and interest in activities that affect the personal, educational, and career de-velopment of students. ASCA members also work with parents, educators, and community members to provide a positive learning environment. American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) - Chartered in 1978, AMHCA repre-sents mental health counselors and actively advocates for client-access to quality services within the health-care industry.
This concludes Part 1 of the presentation on PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION