Today in Biology Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/4) Homework: unit 4 cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis test Tuesday Biology Learning Goal:Overview of chapter 6 – Genes, DNA, Chromosomes and chromatids • Warm Up Question: • Meiosis is a type of cell division that produces: a. zygotes b. chromosomes c. DNA d. gamete • A cell with diploid number of 24 undergoes meiosis, how many are in each daughter cell • a. 6 b. 12 c. 24 d. 48 Fact of the Day As an adult, you have more than 6 square meters (20 sqft) of skin on your body — about the same are as a blanket for a queen-sized bed. • To Do Today: • Complete meiosis handout • Review for cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis unit test
Today in Biology Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/5) Homework: unit 4 cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis test Tuesday Biology Learning Goal:Overview of chapter 6 – Genes, DNA, Chromosomes and chromatids Warm Up Question: Humans have ______chromosomes? A person with 2 X chromosomes is a ___ A person with XY chromosomes is a ___ Crossing over occurs during ____________ phase. 46 Fact of the Day The Barbados Threadsnake is the smallest snake in the world. Sciensational.com female male Prophase 1 • To Do Today: • Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis unit test
Today in Biology Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/6&7) Homework:None Biology Learning Goal: Fact of the Day Warm Up Question: What is DNA?Explain. Your blood vessels, if laid end to end, would encircle the globe twice over. To Do Today: DNA extraction Lab Activity - Begin coloring DNA model
Today in Biology Homework: Have a great 3 day weekend progress rpt next week Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/8) Biology Learning Goal:Overview of chapter 6 – Genes, DNA, Chromosomes and chromatids Warm Up Question: reflection and turn in! What is something you learned or found interesting while doing the DNA extraction lab activity. Fact of the Day Turtles and sea cucumbers can breathe through their butts To Do Today: Lab report directions finish coloring DNA
HISTORY OF GENETICS AND DNA DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID After Quiz Create title page for next unit pg 14 Begin coloring DNA pieces Title Page
Fri Nov 9 To Do Today Scales pg. 1-complete to week 4 Complete DNA structure pg. 15 Introduction to DNA pg. 16 Genetics and DNA video Warm Up: complete reflection turn in How did you do on test? How are you doing so far? Home work: None 5
DNA Page 16 • Introduction to DNA • 1. What is genetics? • 2. 1/3 of the recipe for a human being is the same as a ______. • 3. 2/3 of our recipe is shared with ______. • 4. Basic building block of life is the _____. • 5. _____ carries the recipe for life. • 6. What are genes? • 7. What is genotype? • 8. What is phenotype? • 9. How long is all our DNA if we could stretch it out? • 10. If we were to print a paper with A’s, T’s, G’s and C’s making our genetic code how many pages would it be? How many letters? Analysis of genetics and structure of DNA http://www.dnatube.com/video/2341/Genetics--The-structure-of-DNA--PART-1 Genes Genetics and DNA video
DNA HISTORY • An experiment in 1928 by Frederick Griffith: • He removed DNA from one type of bacteria & put it into a 2nd type of bacteria. • The 2ndbacteria took on the characteristics of the 1st bacteria.
QUESTION # 1 Page 31 WHAT DID GRIFFITH’S EXPERIMENT INDICATE ABOUT DNA?
AND THE ANSWER IS…. Page 31 DNA CARRIES THE GENETIC INFORMATION THAT DICTATES AN ORGANISMS CHARACTERISTICS.
Page 31 THE STRUCTURE OF DNA • In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick were accredited to discovering the structure of DNA. • Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1962. But should they have received the credit???
Rosalind Franklin • Franklin refined the technique of X-ray crystallography to study DNA and produced the famous photo 51. • From photo 51 she determined that DNA had to be a double helix. • Her partner, Maurice Wilkins, shared photo 51 withWatson & Crick, who published the results before Franklin. • Franklin died in 1958. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjW-dZBPCsQ&feature=related
DNA is wound up in tight chromosomes which are located in the nucleusIts shape is a twisted double helix
DNA is genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring. (Blueprint of life) • Found in the nucleus of cells. • Tightly coiled DNA makes chromatin & chromatin makes chromosomes.
Every organism’s DNA is different except clones & identical twins. • DNA contains the genetic code of the organism - the instructions that tell the cell and the whole living thing what proteins to produce. The proteins that a cell makes control what that cell does - the cell's function. This code is based on the code from that organism's parents.
The structure of DNA is a twisted double helix (twisted ladder). • DNA is made of chemical building blocks called nucleotides. These building blocks are made of three parts: a phosphate group, a sugar group and one of four types of nitrogen bases. To form a strand of DNA, nucleotides are linked into chains, with the phosphate and sugar groups alternating.
Nitrogen Bases page 36 • There are two kinds of nitrogen-containing bases - purines and pyrimidines. • Purines: • Adenine and Guanine • Purines are the larger of the two types of bases found in DNA • Pyrimidines: • Cytosine and Thymine • Adenine and guanine are found in both DNA and RNA
Adenine always pairs with Thymine A-T or T-A Cytosine always pairs with Guanine G-C or C-G
Mon Nov 19 To Do TodayComplete video questions- photo 51 Complete DNA extraction lab and handout ----* turn in*--- Complete pg 18- ID Genetic material Complete pg 19- Structure of DNA Complete pg 20- Concept map Warm Up- pick up concept map copy slide on onto back of concept map handout
Nitrogen Bases Page 21-back of concept map There are two kinds of nitrogen-containing bases - purines and pyrimidines. Purines: • Adenine and Guanine • Purines are the larger of the two types of bases found in DNA Pyrimidines: • Cytosine and Thymine • Adenine and guanine are found in both DNA and RNA
Tue Nov 20 Agenda • Organize notebook • Check work Warm Up 1. Describe the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide 2. Suppose a strand of DNA has the nucleotide sequence C C A G A T T G. What is complementary strand? phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogen base A, T, G, C G G T C T A A C
Wed Nov 21 To Do TodayComplete checking assignments Notebook organized Review Practice Quiz
Adenine always pairs with Thymine A-T or T-A Cytosine always pairs with Guanine G-C or C-G
WATSON & CRICK FRANKLIN & WILKINS AMOUNT OF BASE PAIRS DOUBLE HELIX REPLICATION PURINE PYRAMIDINE DNA PLOYMERASE NITROGEN BASE PHOSPHATE 5 CARBON SUGAR 5 handout
Tue Nov 29 Agenda • Review puzzle due at end of period • Finish notes on DNA replication • Handout activity Warm Up - page 38 What is the complementary strand of the following RNA strand: 5' GCACGUUUACCGA 3' ? a) 3' AUGCGUUUACCGA 3' b) 3' CGUGCAAUGGCU 5' c) 3' AGCCAUUUGCGUA 5' d) 3' TACGCAAATGGCT 5' e) none of the above. Homework: Puzzle and handout due Wednesday 7
How DNA decides our traits… • A gene, is a section of the DNA strand that gives the code for one protein. • The proteins coded for in each gene dictate how an organism will develop: regulate cell processes, construct muscle & bone, fight diseases…
Protein Synthesis • The production (synthesis) of polypeptide chains (proteins) • Two phases: Transcription & Translation • mRNA must be processed before it leaves the nucleus of eukaryotic cells 2
DNA RNA Protein DNA Transcription mRNA Ribosome Translation Protein Prokaryotic Cell 3
DNA RNA Protein Nuclear membrane DNA Transcription Pre-mRNA RNA Processing mRNA Ribosome Translation Protein Eukaryotic Cell 4
First We Need RNA • Ribose Nucleic Acid • Similar to DNA but: • smaller and single stranded • The sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose • Contains all the same bases except thymine is replaced with uracil (so RNA has G, C, A, U)
Tue Dec 6 Agenda Make sure DNA fingerprinting Act. Is complete and turned in Notes on Transcription and Translation (RNA) Warm Up page42 Why do you think protein synthesis research has been focused to prokaryotes rather than eukaryotes? Homework- Any missing work next Fri Dec 16 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=983lhh20rGY
There are 3 kinds of RNA used in protein synthesis: • mRNA (messenger RNA) • rRNA (ribosomal RNA) • tRNA (transfer RNA)
Now that we know about DNA and RNA we can learn Protein Synthesis. • Protein Synthesis is the process of making a protein from DNA. • It has 2 parts: Transcription and Translation.
Transcription- (scribe) • The synthesis of mRNA from a DNA blueprint. • This occurs in the nucleus, then the mRNA travels out of the nucleus.
Translation • The information in the mRNA is translated by a ribosome (made of rRNA), who “reads” it. • Transfer RNA (tRNA) enters the ribosome to drop off an amino acid. • A chain of amino acids then exits the ribosome and folds into a protein.
How does the tRNA match up to the mRNA:Codon & Anticodon • CODON: three consecutive nucleotides in mRNA. Each codon codes for a single amino acid. • ANTICODON: three consecutive nucleotides in tRNA that pair to a codon.
copy How DNA determines everything in our body. DNA Replication DNA Transcription Protein Synthesis RNA Translation Protein
Transcription Translation 28
Start & Stop Codons • START CODON= tells the ribosome to start translating the mRNA. • STOP CODON= tells the ribosome to stop translating the mRNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) • Carries the information for a specific protein • Made up of 500 to 1000 nucleotides long • Sequence of 3 bases called codon • AUG – methionine or startcodon • UAA, UAG, or UGA – stopcodons 40
start codon Primary structure of a protein stop codon Messenger RNA (mRNA) protein methionine glycine serine isoleucine glycine alanine codon 1 codon 2 codon 3 codon 4 codon 5 codon 6 codon 7 A U aa2 G G G aa3 C U C C aa4 A U C G aa5 G C G aa6 C A U A A aa1 mRNA peptide bonds 41
Transfer RNA (tRNA) • Made up of 75 to 80 nucleotides long • Picks up the appropriate amino acid floating in the cytoplasm • Transports amino acids to the mRNA • Have anticodons that are complementary to mRNA codons • Recognizes the appropriate codons on the mRNA and bonds to them with H-bonds 42