Warm-up / EOC Prep 1. Oxygen was not present in the early atmosphere. Which of the following describes the first organisms who lived in this environment? A Homologous B Vestigial C Anaerobic D Aerobic 2. Structures that were once useful but no longer have any function, like the human appendix, are called… A homologous structures B vestigial organs C vital organs D mutations
Agenda • Warm-Up • Notes • Classification Worksheet • Whiteboards • Textbook Review Questions • Clean-up • Cool-Down
Announcements • Evolution Quiz Tuesday
The classification of organisms has a long history, but it keeps changing as new knowledge is generated by the research of evolutionary relationships.
It all started more than 2,000 years ago, when the Greek philosopher Aristotle classified groups plants and animals by similar structures.
Starting in the Middle Ages, scientists began using Latin names to classify animals. When this kind of system was first developing many names were used, which became very confusing.
However, a simpler system was developed by the Swedish biologist Carl Linnaeus in the 1750s.
Linnaeus used a two-word Latin name for each species, and this two word system is called binomial nomenclature.
This two part name is called the organism’s scientific name. The two parts are as follows: 1. Genus-category containing similar species (share a lot of characteristics) The first letter of the genus is always capitalized. 2. Species-most basic level of the classification system-one particular organism. The first letter of the species name is lowercase.
Examples of Common Scientific Names • Canis familiaris - dog • Felis domesticus - cat • Canis lupus - wolf • Vulpes vulpes - fox • Populus deltoides - cottonwood
There are estimated to be 5-10 million species in this world We have scientifically identified 1.5 million of them.
Both parts of the scientific name are italicized or underlined. For example, the name for a bee is Apis mellifera.
The scientific naming system allows scientists to communicate regardless of their native language. No two organisms can have the same scientific name, and the name must conform to the rules established by an international commission and to the rules of Latin grammar.
DOMAIN • KINGDOM • PHYLUM • CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES • DangerKeepPondsCleanOrFrogsGetSick • DumbKingsPlayCardsOnFatGreenStools
The Hierarchical System Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Taxonomic Hierarchy Figure 10.5
Illustrate the levels of classification on white paper. • Use Chapter 14 in the textbook to help. • Turn it in when you are done.
Cool-Down • List the different levels of the classification system in order. • What is between order and genus? • Who came up with this system?
Clean up this room!! • That means… • No paper or trash on the floor • Chairs tucked under the desks • Desks straight • THANK YOU!!
Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1. Which of these is necessary for natural selection to occur? A. Genetic engineering B. Genetic variation C. Budding D. Environmental Stability 2. Which of the following is the best definition of biological evolution? A Humans came from monkeys B Only the strongest survive C Genetic change in organisms over time D The process organisms use to improve
Agenda • Warm-up • Notes • Kingdom Worksheet • Kingdom Comparison Posters • Clean-up • Cool-down • Evolution Quiz TOMORROW!
Linnaeus began his system based on observations of organisms that are similar to one another. For example, a tiger resembles a gorilla more closely than either resembles a fish. Darwin then believed that organisms that are more similar to one another have descended from a more recent common ancestor.
Therefore, classification should include an organism’s phylogeny-evolutionary history.
A branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships is called a phylogenetic tree or cladogram. • The closer organisms are on the tree, the more closely they are related and the more recently they shared a common ancestor.
However, some similarities evolve in organisms that are not closely related to one another, because the organisms live in the same kind of place. The process by which this happens is called convergent evolution. Similarities that come about through convergent evolution are called analogous characters. Ex:Bird wing and insect wing
The biggest classification group is Domain. There are 3 domains-Eukarya, Eubacteria, and Archaebacteria. Eubacteria and Archaebacteria are prokaryotic domains and Eukarya is a eukaryotic domain.
REMEMBER: • Eukaryotes = nucleus, membrane bound organelles, ribosomes, bigger • Prokaryotes = no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, ribosomes, smaller.
A biological species is a group of natural populations that are interbreeding or that could interbreed and that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
However, sometimes individuals of different species interbreed and produce offspring called hybrids. Ex: A donkey + a horse = a mule
In the beginning of classification there were only 2 kingdoms-Plants and Animals. • Prokaryotic kingdoms = Eubacteria and ArchaebacteriaProkaryotic, Unicellular, • Ex: Bacteria • Often called Monera
Monera • Prokaryotic • Unicellular • Bacteria
Note** • Monera Kingdom is the Bacteria Kingdom!! • Some scientists split Bacteria into Eubacteria (normal bacteria) and Archaebacteria (extreme bacteria).
MONERA Prochloron Prochloron didemni *WAS DISCOVERED IN 1976 *UNICELLULAR MARINE ORGANISM *BELIEVED TO BE SIMILAR TO THE BACTERIA WHICH EVOLVES TO FORM CHLOROPLAST
There are four Eukaryotic kingdoms (within the Eukarya Domain) in the modern classification system :
1. Protista • Eukaryotic • Single celled / simple multicellular • Heterotrophs and Autotrophs • Includes organisms that “don’t fit” • Ex: amoeba, euglena, kelp
Protista Amoeba Amoeba proteus Can be found in pond water Gets it’s name from Greek word amoibe Has no permanent shape Multiplies by dividing into 2
2. Fungi • Eukaryotic • Chitin in wall (soft cell wall) • Heterotrophic • Reproduce by spores • Ex: mushrooms, yeasts, bread mold
Fungi Penicillin Penicillin Penicillium notatum 1st miracle drug Used to treat wound infections Discovered by Alexander Fleming In London,England Discovered in 1929
3. Plantae • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Cells with cellulose in cell wall • Autotrophic • Photosynthetic • Ex: trees, grass
Plantae Pinus palustris Longleaf Pine Official state tree of North Carolina Can be found in the southeast United States
The Longleaf Pine can grow to be 100 feet tall Produces resin, turpentine, & timber