Answers to Question about the Chapter Nosebleeds [Epistaxis]
Nosebleeds • 60% occurrence – ruptured blood vessels • Most common cause: increased blood pressure • Cure: waiting for blood to clot • Pinch nostrils together (Little’s Area)
Nosebleed Factors Blunt trauma Nose-picking Allergies Drugs (snorting/Aspirin) Alcohol Nasal Sprays Heart Problems Dry/Not Humid Air
Otic Barotrauma • Damage to body tissues from difference in pressure • Ex. An airplane landing • Underwater in a deep pool • Going from high pressure to low pressure nosebleed!
Hemostasis • Hemostasis– Stoppage of Blood Flow • Three Stages: • Platelet Plug Formation (platelets activated) • Vascular Spasms (serotonin) – Blood vessels • Decreases blood loss until clotting • Coagulation (clotting – platelets and fibrinogen) • Can take 3-6 minutes
Not Enough Hemostasis!!! Hemophilia and Thrombocytopenia
Hemophilia • When cut, your blood is unable to clot • Lacks platelets or fibrinogen • Hereditary • Only found in males • Carrier females ONLY • Popularly found in royal family members (England and Russia)
Thrombocytopenia • Not enough circulating PLATELETS (blood clotting) • Small purplish blotches on skin (spontaneous bleeding) • Can be due to lack of Vitamin K (leafy greens) • Negatively affect liver function (clotting factors)
Quick Quiz 1 of 2 • What is the MAIN GOAL of hemostasis? • How is hemophilia different from thrombocytopenia (hint: how do you get it?) • What can you do to prevent getting thrombocytopenia in your diet?
When Clotting Goes Too Far…THROMBUS • Persistent clotting in blood vessels • Can lead to heart attack (pulmonary thrombus) • Embolus = free-floating clot • Can cause heart attack or stroke! • Common in immobilized patients (people in comas) • Slowly flowing blood
Heart Attacks and Tylenol • Heart attack (Myocardial Infarction) – when blood supply to heart blocked off • Tylenol = anti-coagulant • Taking one/two pills can increase chances of surviving heart attack
Sickle Cell Anemia • Anemia– Iron-deficiency due to lack of hemoglobin • Sickle cells – moon-shaped RBCs • Less surface area = less hemoglobin = less iron = anemia! • Hereditary!
Sickle Cell and Malaria • High prevalence in African Americans, why? • Malaria – mosquito-borne infectious disease that attacks blood cells • Started thousands of years ago • 90% deaths from Malaria = Sub-Saharan Africa • Sickle cells = immune to malaria
Leukemia – “White Blood” • Cancer of the bone marrow • Most common cancer in children • Bone marrow = stem cells • Make RBCs, WBCs and platelets • Stem cells produce immature, abnormal and nonfunctional WBCs in large amounts • Leaves body open to opportunistic infection • Cure: Bone Marrow transplant (difficult)
Leukemia Post- WWII • 1945 – Atomic Bomb in Hiroshima • Ending WWII in Japan • Radiation Cancer (Leukemia) • Killed 140,000 • Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes – Eleanor Coerr
Quick Quiz 2 of 2 • What is the name of the free-floating clot resulting from a thrombus? • Which cells are DIRECTLY AFFECTED by Leukemia (test question) • If something is an anti-coagulant (Tylenol), what does that mean?
Artificial Blood Substitutes An Ethical Dilemma
Problems with Donating Human Blood • Short lifespan (RBCs = 3-7 days) • Antibodies unwanted clotting between blood types • (Type A Type B)
Solution?: Cow Blood Hemopure: Purified hemoglobin (oxygen carrier) No problems with antibodies BUT… It’s Bovine (Cow) – based! Mad Cow Disease!!