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Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Poultry

Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Poultry

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Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Poultry

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  1. Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Poultry

  2. Learning Objectives • Understand how Influenza A is spread in poultry • Understand how highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks happen\ • Know how to detect and control highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks via multiple measures

  3. Session Outline • Influenza A and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in birds • How to prevent or control HPAI among poultry • Decontamination • Surveillance and biosecurity • Vaccines

  4. Influenza Virus Type A most likely to cause a panzootic • Most likely to change • Different strains mix in one animal or human host (reassortment) • People lack immunity to the resulting new subtype (highly pathogenic)

  5. Influenza A • Infects many birds, animals, humans • Water fowl and poultry • Humans (mixing vessels) • Pigs (mixing vessels) • Other mammals • Subtypes based on “HA” and “NA” surface proteins • 16 HA, 9 NA subtypes exist • H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 are circulating human subtypes

  6. DIRECT Transmission of Influenza A 16 HAs 9 NAs Non-human virus Human virus Reassortant virus

  7. How does HPAI happen? • Carried by migrating wild birds to domestic poultry • Virus changes and becomes more deadly in poultry • Difficult to control and eliminate because it spreads rapidly

  8. Signs of Infection in Birds • Wild waterfowl asymptomatic • Domestic ducks recently found to be asymptomatic

  9. Signs of Infection in Birds • Mildly ill birds • Ruffled feathers • Fewer eggs • Breathing problems • Very ill birds • May have bleeding under skin of the legs • May have swollen eyes, wattle • Usually die within 2 days

  10. Direct contact Feces Respiratory secretions Improperly disposed carcasses How Birds Spread HPAI

  11. Hands Fomites Airborne particles Contaminated equipment How Humans Spread HPAI

  12. How to Prevent or Control Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

  13. Potential Control Measures • Surveillance • Biosecurity • Restricting movement of birds • Destroying birds humanely • Disposing of carcasses properly • Vaccines

  14. Disease Surveillance • Purpose • Rapidly detect and respond to disease • Learn about virus mutations • Methods • Country-specific, depending on risk • Signs and symptoms reporting • Serologic surveys • Sentinel surveillance

  15. Increasing Surveillance Effectiveness • Make HPAI a notifiable disease • Establish a formal system to detect and investigate outbreaks • Develop technical capability to diagnose HPAI in your country / region

  16. Increasing Surveillance Effectiveness (cont’d) • Participate in the regional surveillance and diagnostic network • Conduct surveillance at a minimum of every six months • Monitor medical status of outbreak control workers

  17. Disease Surveillance • In areas where HPAI is documented • In areas where HPAI could appear • Sensitize and educate the community • Poultry die offs • How to report to animal health authorities • Why to report (and any incentives)

  18. Disease Surveillance Rapid reporting enables animal health agents and rapid response teams to: • Investigate and record key information • Analyze specimens

  19. All measures taken: To keep disease out of a farm To keep disease from spreading from an infected farm Biosecurity

  20. Ensuring Biosecurity • Maintain a barrier from the outside world • Separate new poultry for 2 weeks • Prevent unknown birds from entering flock • Control human traffic into the farm • Use “all in – all out” production Note: Infected poultry and poultry products do NOT enter the food supply.

  21. Poultry-Raising and Biosecurity

  22. Farm movement control Birds People Objects Bird markets Close Depopulate Disinfect Border patrols Restricting Movement and Mixing Deutsche Presse-Agentur

  23. Kill birds humanely Consider compensation for farmers Dispose carcasses safely Do NOT contaminate local water sources Clean and disinfect Restock after 21 days Only after official inspection Destruction and Disposal of Birds in Affected Areas 3/1/2006 Reuters. Karachi

  24. Poultry Vaccines Advantages: • Inactivated (killed) whole AI virus available • Effective against H5 subtype • Good resistance to infection • Reduced amount of virus in environment Disadvantages: • Administered by injection • Does not eliminate possibility of infection Potential future vaccine: • New recombinant fowlpox vaccine

  25. Target high risk flocks Isolate domestic birds from wild water fowl Consider compensation to encourage early reporting Summary

  26. Glossary Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Influenza infection in poultry that causes severe illness and often death. Can be transmitted to humans resulting in severe illness or death. Panzootic A disease affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide geographic area.

  27. Glossary Disease Surveillance The ongoing systematic collection and analysis of data and the provision of information which leads to action being taken to prevent and control a disease. Sentinel Surveillance Disease surveillance based on selected population samples chosen to represent the relevant experience of particular groups.

  28. References and Resources • Guiding principles for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance and Diagnostic Networks in Asia. FAO Expert meeting on Surveillance and Diagnosis of Avian Influenza. Bangkok, Thailand, 21-23 July, 2004. • Preparing for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: A Manual for Countries at Risk . V. Martin, A. Forman, J. Lubroth. Updated 16 February 2006

  29. References and Resources • A Global Strategy for the Progressive Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) . Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Health Organization • PROTECT POULTRY – PROTECT PEOPLE Basic advice for stopping the spread of avian flu. Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases. FAO, Agriculture Department, Animal Production and Health Division • Additional FAO Animal Health Information Resources Available at: