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Dark Matter

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Dark Matter

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  1. Georg G. Raffelt, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Dark Matter Axion Dark Matter Physics Colloquium, University of Sydney, 3 March 2014

  2. Axions as Cold Dark Matter of the Universe Dark Energy ~70% (Cosmological Constant) Neutrinos 0.1-2% Ordinary Matter ~5% (of this only about 10% luminous) Dark Matter ~25%

  3. Periodic System of Elementary Particles Quarks Leptons Charge +2/3 Charge -1/3 Charge -1 Charge 0 d e ne u Up Electron 1stFamily Down e-Neutrino d e ne Up u Electron Down e-Neutrino s m nm 2ndFamily Strange Charm Muon m-Neutrino c b t nt 3rd Family Bottom Top Neutron t Tau t-Neutrino Higgs Strong Interaction (8 Gluons) Electromagnetic Interaction (Photon) Proton Weak Interaction (W and Z Bosons) Gravitation (Gravitons?)

  4. Supersymmetric Extension of Particle Physics Spin Standard particle Superpartner Spin 1/2 Leptons (e, ne, …) Quarks (u, d, …) Sleptons (, , …) Squarks (, , …) 0 1 Gluons W Z0 Photon (g) Gluinos Wino Zino Photino () 1/2 0 Higgs Higgsino 1/2 2 Graviton Gravitino 3/2 In supersymmetric extensions of the particle-physics standard model, every boson has a fermionic partner and vice versa • If R-Parity is conserved, the lightest SUSY-particle (LSP) is stable • Most plausible candidate for dark matter is the neutralino, • similar to a massive Majorana neutrino Neutralino = C1Photino + C2Zino + C3Higgsino

  5. Laboratory Searches for WIMP Dark Matter Galactic dark matter particle (e.g. neutralino) Energy deposition • Recoil energy • (few keV) is • measured by • Ionisation • Scintillation • Cryogenic

  6. WIMP Searches (Underground Physics) COUPP PICASSO Heat Phonons CDMS EDELWEISS CRESST ROSEBUD Charge Light DRIFT GERDA XENON LUX, ZEPLIN WARP, ArDM DEAP/CLEAN DAMA/LIBRA KIMS, XMASS

  7. WIMP Cross Section Limits 2014 Klaus Eitel, 2014

  8. High- and Low-Energy Frontiers in Particle Physics QCD scale Planck mass Cosmological constant Electroweak scale GUT scale eV CERN Accelerator Frontier WIMP dark matter (related to EW scale, perhaps SUSY) Axion dark matter(related to Peccei-Quinn symmetry)

  9. Axion Physics in a Nut Shell Particle-Physics Motivation Solar and Stellar Axions CP conservation in QCD by Peccei-Quinn mechanism Axions thermally produced in stars, e.g. by Primakoff production a g g  Axions a ~ p0 a mpfp mafa • Limits from avoiding excessive • energy drain • Solaraxion searches(CAST, Sumico) g For fa≫ fp axions are “invisible” and very light Cosmology Search for Axion Dark Matter Microwave resonator (1 GHz = 4 meV) In spite of small mass, axions are born non-relativistically (non-thermal relics) N g a Primakoff conversion Bext Cold dark matter candidate ma~ 10 meV (or much smaller or larger) S ADMX-LF (UW Seattle) ADMX-HF (Yale)

  10. CP Violation in Particle Physics Discrete symmetries in particle physics C – Charge conjugation, transforms particles to antiparticles violated by weak interactions P – Parity, changes left-handedness to right-handedness violated by weak interactions T – Time reversal, changes direction of motion (forward to backward) CPT – exactly conserved in quantum field theory CP – conserved by all gauge interactions violated by three-flavor quark mixing matrix • All measured CP-violating effects derive • from a single phase in the quark mass matrix • (Kobayashi-Maskawa phase), • i.e. from complex Yukawa couplings • Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry • requires new ingredients M. Kobayashi T. Maskawa Physics Nobel Prize 2008

  11. The CP Problem of Strong Interactions Phase from Yukawa coupling Angle variable CP-odd quantity Real quark mass Remove phase of mass term by chiral transformation of quark fields • can be traded between quark phases and term • No physical impact if at least one • Induces a large neutron electric dipole moment (a T-violating quantity) Experimental limits: Why so small?

  12. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Violates time reversal (T) and space reflection (P) symmetries Natural scale Experimental limit Limit on coefficient

  13. Strong CP Problem QCD vacuum energy Equivalent Equivalent • CP conserving vacuum has (Vafa and Witten 1984) • QCD could have any , is “constant of nature” • Energy can not be minimized: not dynamical Peccei-Quinn solution: Make dynamical, let system relax to lowest energy

  14. The Pool Table Analogy (Pierre Sikivie 1996) Axis Symmetry broken Floor inclined fa New degree of freedom Axion Symmetry dynamically restored (Weinberg 1978, Wilczek 1978) (Peccei & Quinn 1977) Gravity Pool table Symmetric relative to gravity

  15. 35 Years of Axions

  16. The Cleansing Axion Frank Wilczek “I named them after a laundry detergent, since they clean up a problem with an axial current.” (Nobel lecture 2004)

  17. Axion Bounds and Searches [GeV] fa 103 106 109 1012 1015 keV eV meV meV neV ma Experiments Tele scope CAST Direct searches ADMX (Seattle & Yale) Too much hot darkmatter Too much CDM (misalignment) Too much cold dark matter (re-alignment with Qi = 1) Globular clusters (a-g-coupling) Classic region Anthropic region SN 1987A Too many events Too much energy loss Globular clusters (He ignition), WD cooling (a-e coupling)

  18. Axions as Cold Dark Matter of the Universe Dark Energy ~70% (Cosmological Constant) Neutrinos 0.1-2% Ordinary Matter ~5% (of this only about 10% luminous) Dark Matter ~25%

  19. Creation of Cosmological Axions (very early universe) • UPQ(1) spontaneously broken • Higgs field settles in • “Mexican hat” • Axion field sits fixed at (eV) • Axion mass turns on quickly • by thermal instanton gas • Field starts oscillating when • Classical field oscillations • (axions at rest) Axions are born as nonrelativistic, classical field oscillations Very small mass, yet cold dark matter

  20. Axion Cosmology in PLB 120 (1983)

  21. Killing Two Birds With One Stone • Peccei-Quinn mechanism • Solves strong CP problem • Provides dark matter • in the form of axions

  22. Cosmic Axion Density Modern values for QCD parameters and temperature-dependent axion mass imply (Bae, Huh & Kim, arXiv:0806.0497) If axions provide the cold dark matter: • implies GeV and meV (“classic window”) • GeV (GUT scale) or larger (string inspired) requires (“anthropic window”)

  23. Axion Production by Domain Wall and String Decay Recent numerical studies of collapse of string-domain wall system Implies a CDM axion mass of Hiramatsu, Kawasaki, Saikawa& Sekiguchi, arXiv:1202.5851 (2012) Remains to be confirmed, interpretation of numerical studies not entirely straightforward

  24. BEC Formation ~100 citations • Axions ~ WIMP dark matter on scales axion Compton wavelength? • Larger-range correlation established by BEC dynamics? (Observable?) • Axions born as classical field oscillations → Issue of classical field dynamics (not a quantum effect) • BEC formation caused by gravitational interactions possible ??? See also • Erken, Sikivie, Tam & Yang, arXiv:1111.1157 • Saikawa & Yamaguchi, arXiv:1210.7080 • Noumi, Saikawa, Sato & Yamaguchi, arXiv:1310.0167 • Davidson & Elmer, arXiv:1307.8024 • Berges & Jaeckel, arXiv:1402.4776

  25. High- and Low-Energy Frontiers in Particle Physics QCD scale Planck mass Cosmological constant Electroweak scale GUT scale eV CERN Accelerator Frontier WIMP dark matter (related to EW scale, perhaps SUSY) Axion dark matter(related to Peccei-Quinn symmetry)

  26. Searching for Solar Axions Searching for Axion-Like Particles

  27. Experimental Tests of Invisible Axions Primakoff effect: Axion-photon transition in external static E or B field (Originally discussed for by Henri Primakoff 1951) • Pierre Sikivie: • Macroscopic B-field can provide a • large coherent transition rate over • a big volume (low-mass axions) • Axion helioscope: • Look at the Sun through a dipole magnet • Axion haloscope: • Look for dark-matter axions with • A microwave resonant cavity

  28. Search for Solar Axions Axion Helioscope (Sikivie 1983) Primakoff production N Axion flux a a g g MagnetS Axion-Photon-Oscillation Sun • Tokyo Axion Helioscope (“Sumico”) (Results since 1998, up again 2008) • CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) (Data since 2003) Alternative technique: Bragg conversion in crystal Experimental limits on solar axion flux from dark-matter experiments (SOLAX, COSME, DAMA, CDMS ...)

  29. Tokyo Axion Helioscope (“Sumico”) m Moriyama, Minowa, Namba, Inoue, Takasu &Yamamoto PLB 434 (1998) 147 Inoue, Akimoto,Ohta, Mizumoto,Yamamoto & Minowa PLB 668 (2008) 93

  30. CAST at CERN

  31. Photon Regeneration Experiments Ehret et al. (ALPS Collaboration), arXiv:1004.1313 • Recent “shining-light-through-a-wall” or vacuum birefringence experiments: • ALPS • BMV • BFRT • GammeV • LIPPS • OSQAR • PVLAS (DESY, using HERA dipole magnet) (Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intens, Toulouse) (Brookhaven, 1993) (Fermilab) (Jefferson Lab) (CERN, using LHC dipole magnets) (INFN Trieste)

  32. Shining TeV Gamma Rays through the Universe Figure from a talk by Manuel Meyer (Univ. Hamburg)

  33. Parameter Space for Axion-Like Particles Laser Experiments CAST Solar Axions CAST Solar Axions HB Stars HB Stars HB Stars How to make progress? TeV g rays Axion Line Axion Line Axion Line Axion Line Invisible axion (DM) Invisible axion (DM) Invisible axion (DM) Invisible axion (DM)

  34. Next Generation Axion Helioscope (IAXO) at CERN Need new magnet w/ – Much bigger aperture: per bore – Lighter (no iron yoke) – Bores at Troom • Irastorza et al.: Towards a new generation axion helioscope, arXiv:1103.5334 • Armengaud et al.: Conceptual Design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO), arXiv:1401.3233

  35. Searching for Axion Dark Matter Searching for Axion Dark Matter

  36. Search for Galactic Axions (Cold Dark Matter) Power ma Frequency Dark matter axions Velocities in galaxy Energies therefore ma = 1-100 meV va 10-3 c Ea (1 10-6) ma Microwave Energies (1 GHz  4 meV) Axion Haloscope(Sikivie1983) Axion Signal Bext 8 Tesla Thermal noise of cavity & detector Microwave Resonator Q  105 Power of galactic axion signal Primakoff Conversion g a Cavity overcomes momentum mismatch Bext

  37. Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX), Seattle Adapted from Gianpaolo Carosi

  38. SQUID Microwave Amplifiers in ADMX Adapted from Gianpaolo Carosi

  39. Axion Dark Matter Searches Limits assuming axions are the galactic dark matter with standard halo 1. Rochester-Brookhaven- Fermilab, PRD 40 (1989) 3153 3 2 1 2. University of Florida PRD 42 (1990) 1297 KSVZ 4 3. US Axion Search ApJL 571 (2002) L27 DFSZ 4. CARRACK I (Kyoto) hep-ph/0101200 ADMX-LF (Seattle) search range (2015+)

  40. ADMX-HF at Yale (Steve Lamoreaux Group) Design of cavity & magnet Dilution refrigerator above & below deck ADMX-HF will also be a test-bed for innovative concepts, e.g. thin-film superconducting cavities Adapted from Karl van Bibber

  41. WISPDMX at DESY and MPIfR Microwave cavities: HERA – 50, 208, 500 MHz 208 MHz cavity: resonant modes at 199, 295, 433, 524, 579, 707, 765, 832 MHz Magnets: DESY H1 1.1 T (solenoid), HERA 5 T (dipole), Receiver technology: MPIfR, Tn~ 100 K Phase 1,2 – searches using available facilitiesPhase 3 – advanced searches with specially designed facilities 208 MHz microwave cavities H1 detector

  42. Broadband Approaches „Focusing“ the DM signal w/ spherical reflector Feasible above 10 GHz TOKAMAKs:- Optimize B2Vfactor in a radiometer mode - Good at low frequencies - Design study under way (Lobanov et al. 2013) Horns et al. 2013

  43. Center for Axion and Precision Physics (CAPP) Yannis Semertzidis 15 Oct 2013 New Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Korea The plan is to launch a competitive Axion Dark Matter Experiment in Korea, participate in state-of-the-art axion experiments around the world, play a leading role in the proposed proton electric-dipole-moment (EDM) experiment and take a significant role in storage-ring precision physics involving EDM and muon g–2 experiments.

  44. What if the axion is found?

  45. 1D Infall and the Folding of Phase Space

  46. Fine Structure in the Axion Spectrum • Axion distribution on a 3-dim sheet in 6-dim phase space • Is “folded up” by galaxy formation • Velocity distribution shows narrow peaks that can be resolved • More detectable information than local dark matter density P.Sikivie & collaborators

  47. Axion Bounds and Searches [GeV] fa 103 106 109 1012 1015 keV eV meV meV neV ma Experiments Tele scope CAST Direct searches ADMX (Seattle & Yale) Too much hot darkmatter Too much CDM (misalignment) Too much cold dark matter (re-alignment with Qi = 1) Globular clusters (a-g-coupling) Classic region Anthropic region SN 1987A Too many events Too much energy loss Globular clusters (He ignition), WD cooling (a-e coupling)

  48. Oscillating Neutron EDM by Axion Dark Matter Oscillating axion field (DM) → Oscillating Q term → Oscillating neutron EDM Assume axions are galactic dark matter: 300 MeV/cm3 Independently of expect Expect time-varying neutron EDM, MHz frequency for GeV 8 orders of magnitude below limit on static EDM, but oscillates!

  49. Searching for Axions in the Anthropic Window CASPEr experiment Precise magnetometry to measure tiny deviations from Larmor frequency Graham & Rajendran, arXiv:1101.2691 Budker, Graham, Ledbetter, Rajendran & Sushkov, arXiv:1306.6089

  50. Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr) Time-varying nucleon EDM caused by axion DM in Lead Titanate magnetometer Phase I Phase II Magnetometer noise limit Budker, Graham, Ledbetter, Rajendran & Sushkov, arXiv:1306.6089