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Abnormal Psychology

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Abnormal Psychology

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  1. Abnormal Psychology

  2. Introduction • How should we define psychological disorders? • How should we understand disorders? • How should we classify psychological disorders?

  3. No one absolute definition of psychological disorders • A pattern of behavioral or psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress and impairs the ability to function • Behavior that is atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable • Sanity and insanity are legal terms. Insanity relates to the ability of the defendant to distinguish right from wrong

  4. Perspectives on Psychological Disorders

  5. Historical perspective • Greece • Hippocrates – mental illness was the result of natural causes • Galen divided the causes of mental disorders into physical and psychological disorders • China • Organ pathologies and stressful situations cause mental disorders

  6. Middle Ages • Europe • Abnormal behavior was viewed as demonic possession • Treatment – prayer, laying of hands, exorcism • Islamic countries • Humane mental hospitals were established

  7. Renaissance • Return to the scientific approach 18th and 19th century • Humanitarian reforms – trained nurses, hospitals, treatment 20th century • Scientific advances – MRIs, PET scans, medication

  8. Understanding Psychological DisordersThe Medical Model • Philippe Pinel – medical reformer • Psychological disorders are sickness • Illness needs to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and cured through therapy

  9. The Bio-psycho-social Approach • All behavior arises from the interaction of nature and nurture • Influence of culture on disorders

  10. Classifying Psychological Disorders • Aims to describe a disorder and predict its future course • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) • DSM-5 • International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) • Criticisms of the DSM

  11. Classifying Psychological Disorders

  12. Classifying Psychological Disorders

  13. Classifying Psychological Disorders

  14. Classifying Psychological Disorders

  15. Classifying Psychological Disorders

  16. Classifying Psychological Disorders

  17. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders

  18. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders

  19. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders

  20. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders

  21. Labeling Psychological Disorders • Rosenhan’s study • Power of labels • Preconception can stigmatize • Insanity label • Stereotypes of the mentally ill • Self-fulfilling prophecy

  22. Anxiety Disorders

  23. Anxiety Disorders • Troubled by persistent worry, phobis, repetitative behavios, or experience perios of terror or panic • Anxiety disorders • Generalized anxiety disorder • Panic disorder • Phobia • Obsessive-compulsive disorder • Post-traumatic stress disorder

  24. Generalized Anxiety Disorder • 2/3 women • Free floating anxiety • Furrow brows, twitching eyelids, trembling, perspiration, • Concentration is difficult

  25. Panic Disorder • Panic disorder • Panic attacks – minutes long episode of intense fear that something horrible is about to happen. • Heart palpitations, shortness of breath, choking sensations, trembling (often thought to be a heart attack)

  26. Phobias • Focus anxiety on a specific object, activity, or situation • Irrational fear that disrupts behavior • Specific phobia – snakes, mice, flying • Social phobia – fear of being scrutinized by others • Agoraphobia – fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes

  27. Phobias

  28. Phobias

  29. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Obsessive-compulsive disorder • An obsession versus a compulsion • Checkers • Hand washers

  30. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  31. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  32. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  33. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  34. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  35. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder • Post-traumatic stress disorder • PTSD • “shellshock” or “battle fatigue” • Not just due to a war situation • recurring flashbacks, avoidance or numbing of memories of the event, and hyperarousal more than a month after the traumatic event • Post-traumatic growth • positive change experienced as a result of the struggle with a major life crisis or a traumatic event

  36. SAD ScaleCount one point for each answer that matches those below • F • T • F • F • T • F • F • T • F • T • T • F • T • T • F • T • F • T • F • T • T • F • T • T • F • T • F • F

  37. Norms for SAD Scale The higher the score, the greater the degree of social discomfort

  38. Understanding Anxiety DisordersThe Learning Perspective • Fear conditioning • Stimulus generalization • Reinforcement • Observational learning

  39. The Biological Perspective • Natural selection • Snakes and spiders • Not bombs • Genes • Anxiety gene • Temperament • The Brain • Fear learning experiences rewire the brain

  40. Somatoform Disorders

  41. Somatoform Disorder • a group of psychiatric disorders that cause unexplained physical symptoms • Types of disorders • Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder • Conversion Disorder • Hypochondriasis • Body Dysmorphic Disorder • Somatoform Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

  42. Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder • psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause. • most common physical complaints are pain, fatigue , appetite loss, and various gastrointestinal problems

  43. Conversion Disorder • a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no psychological basis can be found. • person who loses his voice following a situation in which he was afraid to speak. • A person becomes temporarily blind due to the stress of the loss of a parent or spouse

  44. Hypochondriasis • People that are preoccupied with concern they have a serious disease. They may believe that minor complaints are signs of very serious medical problems. • worried about getting a disease or are certain they have a disease, even after medical tests show they do not. • may believe that a common headache is a sign of a brain tumor

  45. Body Dysmorphic Disorder • a condition where a person spends a lot of time worried and concerned about their appearance. • may focus on an apparent physical defect that other people cannot see. • or, might have a mild physical defect but the concern about it is out of proportion to the defect

  46. Somatoform Disorder Not Otherwise Specified • Conditions that may have features of other somatoform disorders. But they do not meet the full criteria for any other diagnosis • Pseudocyesis – mistaken belief of being pregnant • expanding abdomen • feeling labor pains • nausea • fetal movement • cessation of menstrual period

  47. Explaining Somatoform Disorders • Constitute only 5 percent of all disorders treated. • Decrease linked to our growing understanding of physiological and psychological disorders. • Behavioral perspective • avoidance behavior (becoming ill to avoid or reduce anxiety-arousing stress) is reinforced in two ways: • Anxiety is reduced. • There are interpersonal gains in terms of sympathy and support.

  48. Eating Disorders

  49. Eating Disorders • Problematic eating patterns • Extreme concerns about body weight • Inappropriate behaviors aimed at controlling body weight. • Types of eating disorders • Anorexia Nervosa • Bulimia Nervosa