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Lymphatic System Immune System

Lymphatic System Immune System. Functions of the Immune System . The function of the immune system Protect the entire body from a variety of harmful substances. Combining form: IMMUN/o immune, protected and safe. Functions of the Lymphatic System Page 123.

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Lymphatic System Immune System

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  1. Lymphatic SystemImmune System

  2. Functions of the Immune System • The function of the immune system • Protect the entire body from a variety of harmful substances. • Combining form: • IMMUN/o immune, protected and safe

  3. Functions of the Lymphatic System Page 123 • Three primary functions: • Return excess lymph (interstitial) fluid to the blood. • Absorb fats and fat soluble vitamins from the digestive system and transport them to the cells. • Functions as part of the immune system to defend the body against foreign organisms.

  4. Structures of the Immune System • Immune system is not contained with in a single organ or vessel • Immune system depends on structures from • Lymphatic system • Cardiovascular system • Integumentary system

  5. Structures of the Lymphatic System Page 123 • Major structures of the lymphatic system: • Lymph vessels Lymph nodes • Lymph fluid Tonsils • Adenoids Spleen • Thymus Lymphocytes

  6. Lymphatic System • Lymph Fluid • intercellular • Lymph Vessels • Lymph Capillaries > Lymph vessels • Right lymphatic duct & Thoracic Duct • Lacteals in sm int

  7. Lymph Capillaries and Lymph Vessels Page 123 • Lymph Capillaries: thin walled tubes that carry lymph from the tissue spaces to the larger lymphatic vessels. • Lymphatic Vessels: • Have valves to prevent the backward flow of fluid • Lymph always flows toward the thoracic cavity.

  8. Lymphatic System

  9. Lymph Fluid Page 123 • AKA: intercellular or interstitial fluid • Clear, colorless tissue fluid that leaves the capillaries and flows in the tissue spaces between cells. • Lymph fluid brings nutrients and hormones to the cells. • Carries waste products from these tissues

  10. Lymph Nodes

  11. Lymph Nodes Page 124 • 3 functions of the lymph nodes • Produce lymph cells (lymphocytes) • Filter lymph and trap substances from inflammatory and cancerous lesions. • Macrophages: located in lymph nodes can engulf and destroy foreign substances.

  12. Lymphatic System • Cervical • Axillary • Inguinal

  13. Major Lymph Node SitesTable 6.1 Page 124 • Cervical lymph nodes: located in the neck (CERVIC/o neck) • Axillary lymph nodes: located under the arms. (AXILL/o armpit) • Inguinal lymph nodes: located in the groin area of the lower abdomen. (INGUIN/o groin) • Appendix & Peyer’s patches: specialized lymph nodes located in the intestines.

  14. Tonsils and Adenoids Page 125 Table 6.2 • Tonsils and Adenoids: masses of lymphatic tissue that form a protective ring around the nose and upper throat.

  15. Combining Forms -Know all of these! • ADENOID/ o Adenoid • TONSILL/o Tonsil • NAS/o Nose • PHARYNG/o Pharynx • PALAT/o Palate or roof of mouth

  16. Spleen Page 125 • Saclike mass of lymphatic tissue • Produces lymphocytes and monocytes • Filters microorganisms and other foreign material from the blood. • Stores red blood cells • Maintains appropriate balance between cells and plasma in the body

  17. Combining Forms – Know all of these! • SPLEN/o Spleen • The spleen is hemolytic which means it removes and destroys worn out red blood cells. • HEM/o Blood • -LYTIC Reduce or Destroy

  18. Pathology • Lymphadenitis • Lymphadenopathy • Lymphangioma

  19. Immune System Defense • First Line of Defense • Skin (Intact) free of cuts, scrapes, or open sores. • Skin is a physical barrier to prevent entry of invading organisms

  20. Immune System Defense • Respiratory system is also a primary line of defense • foreign matter that is breathed in is trapped by cilia (nose hairs) • mucus secreted continually flushes away foreign matter. • Coughing and sneezing removes matter also.

  21. Immune System Defense • Digestive system has a protective function also. • Destroys bacteria and other invaders that are accidentally allowed or consumed with food.

  22. Antigen-Antibody ReactionsPage 127 • Antigen: any substance such as a virus, bacterium, or toxin that the body regards as foreign. Antigens stimulate the production to antibodies. • Antibodies: is a disease fighting protein developed by the body in response to the presence of a specific antigen.

  23. Antigen – Antibody ReactionPage 127 • The antigen – antibody reaction is also known as the Immune Reaction. • Binding antigens to antibodies to form antigen antibody complexes that render the toxic antigen harmless.

  24. Lymphocytes • Major class of white blood cells that specialize so they can attack specific microorganisms. • 3 types of lymphocytes • Monocytes: • Macrophage • Histocytes

  25. Monocytes • Lymphocyte formed in the bone marrow • Transported to other parts of the body • Become macrophages

  26. Macrophages • Type of lymphocyte • Protects the body by ingesting the invading cells.

  27. Histocytes • Large macrophages • Found in loose connective tissue • Two major types • T-Cells • B-Cells

  28. B Cells • Produced in bone marrow. • Designed to make a specific antibody against a specific antigen

  29. B Cells or B lymphocytes >Plasma Cells> secrete antibodies Complement Immunoglobulin Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin G Immunoglobulin A Immunoglobulin E Immunoglobulin D

  30. Plasma Cells • Produce and secrete antibodies with antibody specifically coded to match one antigen. • Effective against most free floating agents

  31. Complement • Series of complex proteins occurring in normal serum. • In an antigen - antibody reaction complement aids phagocytes in the destruction of antigens. • LYSIS: destruction of a cells by penetrating the cell wall, allowing fluid in, causing the cell ruptures.

  32. B Cells or B lymphocytes >Plasma Cells> secrete antibodies Complement Immunoglobulin Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin G Immunoglobulin A Immunoglobulin E Immunoglobulin D

  33. T Cells • T cells are small, circulating lymphocytes • Produced in bone marrow • T-cells live for years • Primary function is to coordinate immune defense and kill. • Responsible for graft rejections.

  34. Types of T Cells • Helper T cell: secrete substances that stimulate the production of antibodies by B cells. • Suppressor T cell: stops B-cell activity when this activity is no longer needed. • Memory T cell: remembers specific antigen and stimulate a faster and more intense response if the antigen returns.

  35. T Cells or T lymphocytes • Interferon • Lymphokines • Macrophage • Phagocyte

  36. Interferon • Produced by T-cells • Family of proteins released by cells when invaded by a virus. • Interferon induces non-infected cells to form an antiviral protein that slow or stops the viral multiplication.

  37. Lymphokines • Chemicals produced by the T cells • Direct the immune response between cells. • Attract macrophages to the site

  38. Hemocytoblast + Stem cells Normoblast meakaryocyte basophil Eosinophil Band cell monocyte lymphoblast Reticulocytes platelets neutrophils macrophage lymphocytes Erythrocytes B cells t cells

  39. Immune System in Action • Stage One • viruses invade body to invade cells and replicate. • Macrophages eat invading viruses • helper T cells activated.

  40. Immune System in Action • Stage Two • Helper T cells multiple • Helper T cells attract complement to the areas • Helper T stimulate multiplication B cells • B cells start producing antibodies

  41. Immune System in Action • Step Three • Complement proteins break open cells invaded by the virus and spill the viral content • Antibodies produced by the B cells inactivate the viruses.

  42. Immune System in Action • Stage Four • Suppressor T cells halt the immune response • B-cells remain ready in case the same virus invades again

  43. Immunity • Natural Immunity • Acquired Immunity • Artificial Immunity

  44. Immunity Pages 127-128 • Natural Immunity • Natural Passive Immunity: passed from mother to child before birth or immediately after birth through breast milk • Natural Active Immunity: Obtain by the development of antibodies during an attach of an infectious disease. (Example: chicken pox.)

  45. Immunity • Acquired Immunity • Artificial Active Immunity: process of artificially acquiring immunity through vaccination. (Immunization) • Artificial Passive Immunity: Acquired by receiving antiserum containing antibodies from another host. (Example: Snake bite)

  46. Pathology • Allergic Reactions • Autoimmune Disorders Table 6.4 • Immunodeficiency • Human Immunodeficiency Virus • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-AIDS • ELISA • Western Blot

  47. Treatment • Immunotherapy • Antibody Therapy • Immunosuppression

  48. Pathogenic Organisms • Bacteria • Fungus • Yeast • Parasites • Viruses

  49. Oncology • Tumor—Neoplasm • Angiogenesis • Benign • Maligant • Carcinoma in situ • Invasive malignancy • Metastasize • Metastasis

  50. Cancer

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