Variation • What is variation? • What are the two causes of variation? • What are the two types of variation? Give an example of each one.
Variation • Within any group of individuals there are many differences. We call these differences VARIATION. • These variations can occur within a species
Inheritance There are 2 types of variations: Continuous variation – measured, wide range e.g. height, weight. Discontinuous variation – clear-cut, groups e.g. eye colour, blood group.
Continuous Variation • You can measure the values • There is a wide range of values • The re are inbetween values
Discontinuous variation • This shows clear cut groups • Usually you can pick from a list of categories
Continuous or discontinuous? • Height • Fur colour • Flower colour • Weight • Shoe size • Continuous • Discontinuous • Discontinuous • Continuous • Discontinuous
Choose an example of each to investigate in this class • Put your results in a table • Then draw a bar chart
Genetics vs. Environment • Name 3 characteristics that are caused by genetics • Where is this genetic information found? • Name 3 characteristics that are caused by the environment
Sex cells • What is the male human sex cell? • How is it adapted to its function? • What is the female human sex cell? • How is it adapted to its function?
Selective breeding • What is selective breeding? • Where is selective breeding used?
So, Doctor,what isLHON? It's a disease of the mitochondria. mitochondria.Those are the things in cells that supply energy. They're in thecytoplasm, yes? That's right! Now what happens when an egg cell is fertilised?
The sperm nucleus gets into the egg. Then the egg nucleus and sperm nucleus join together and make your first complete cell. Exactly! But whose mitochondria do you get?
Your mitochondria come from your mum. You only get a nucleus from your dad. That's right! The mitochondria get copied when your cells divide – just like the nucleus. So every cell has some. But Maya's are faulty. That's why she went blind. So her children will goblindtoo?
Yes. And I'm afraid there is no treatment. But scientists are working on it. Let me explain – it's all written down here.
Right, Darcy. I'll let you get back to your patients. You'll have to tell Maya and Jake that there is no solution to their problem. There might be a treatment in future, but will it be too late? n How 2-parent fertilisation usually happens n The scientists' idea for 3-parent fertilisation n Why and how 3-parent fertilisation might help them in future…if they can wait. Planwhat to say to Maya and Jake. Prepare diagrams to help you explain:
Alien Population: Creation Rules • 5 main characteristics make up a Geneticon • Body Shape • Eyes • Nose • Feet or something similar to allow movement • Antennae • Whether they are Male or female is determined by the antennae • Within each of these there are 6 possibilities 6 different genes determining a characteristic • These are conveniently numbered 1 – 6 for ease of creation by the role of a die
Geneticon Creation • Start with Body type • Roll the die, see which body gene you have. Draw your Geneticon’s body. • How will your Geneticon Move? • Roll the die, see which movement gene you have. • How fine a looking specimen do you have? • Roll the die a couple of more times to add eyes and a nose. • The final touch is an antenna. • Remember that this also tells you whether you have a boy or a girl. • If you wish you can name your Geneticon. .
1- Round 2 - Triangular 3 - Blob 4 - Square 5 - Heart 6 - Spiked Characteristics Key - Body
1- Wings 2 - Spring 3 - Wheels 4 - Flippers 5 - Feet 6 - Ski Characteristics Key - Movement
1- Round single 2 - Round double 3 - Round triple 4 - Two on stalks 5 - Round single with lashes 6 - Round double with lashes Characteristics Key - Eyes
1- Red blob 2 - Blue blob 3 - Green blob 4 - Orange blob 5 - Yellow blob 6 – Purple blob Characteristics Key - Nose
1- Red triangle (girl) 2 - Red coil (girl) 3 - Red cross (girl) 4 - Green triangle (boy) 5 - Green coil (boy) 6 - Green cross (boy) Characteristics Key - Antennae
Alien Population: Founder Generation • You have now created your starting population, your founder generation. They have all grown up and are now ready to find their ideal partner to settle down and have their own little Geneticons. • The Alien dating agency is not that sophisticated. Pool your Geneticon females and pool your Geneticon males. • Now select a random card from each pool. These are your happy couple.
Making Geneticon Babies • Take your Geneticon pair. • What do you think their baby will look like? • Who’s eyes will it have? Who’s body shape? • This will be decided by the genes for those characteristics. (body, eyes, antenna, movement, nose) • Will it get its Mum’s or Dad’s gene? • For every characteristic you will flip a coin • Heads – It will inherit Mum’s gene • Tails – It will inherit Dad’s gene • The Geneticons have large families. • Each couple have a minimum of 4 babies
Family Mum Dad Babies
Baby Competition The local Mayor of Genesville has decided to hold a baby competition. He can’t decide whether to make it the Cutest or Ugliest. So he’s holding both • You may like to have regional heats within your groups • Each group can enter one baby into each competition • Make sure that your babies get entered for the right category! You never know your cute one might win the Ugly baby competition! • Time to vote and announce a winner • Congratulations or should it be commiserations?
Hybrids • What is a hybrid? • Why can’t hybrids reproduce?