Developing Multiple Choice Test Items Ari Purnawan
Multiple Choice Items Stem (presents a stimulus) Options, usually 3 - 5 (give alternatives to choose from), one is the key, the others are distractors
Multiple choice • Is most suitable for assessing learning outcomes at the recall and comprehension levels • does not allow test takers to construct, organize, and present their own answers. • enables the test takes to arrive at a correct answer simply by guessing.
Rules • Design each item to measure a specific objective. e.g. questions with wh-q • State the stem and options as simple and directly as possible. • Be sure that there is only one correct answer. • Do not provide clues to the correct answer.
Stems can be: • 1. A complete statement (test takers choose the best response) • 2. A complete question with wh-questions (tts choose the best answer). • 3. An incomplete sentence (tts choose the correct form).
Options: • Must be in an equal form and, if possible, length. • Must be correct by itself • Must contain only one correct answer. (It becomes `correct` only after it is used in the stem or to respond to it. • use uppercase A, B, C, D, E instead of lowercase a, b, c, d
How? • Start from an open-ended question. Choose several wrong answer that many of the tts wrote. • make some adjustments to make all look equal or similar
More things to consider • Each item should measure a specific aspect of language learning. • Each must be independent. • Do not provide an answer to an item in a stem of another item.
Examples 1. According to the text above, a figure that has eight sides is called an: A. pentagon B. quadrilateral C. octagon D. ogive
2. As compared to autos of the 60s, autos in the 80s .... • travelling slower • bigger interiors • to use less fuel • was less constructed in foreign countries • contain more safety features
3. Switzerland .... A. is located in Asia B. produces large quantities of gold C. has no direct access to the ocean D. is a flat arid plain
References • Brown, H.D. 2001. Teaching by Principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nded). Language Assessment: Basic Concepts in Test Development New York: Pearson Education Company. • Brown, H.D. 2004. Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. New York: Pearson Education Company. • Cohen, A.D. 1994. Assessing Language Ability in the Classroom (2nded). Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. • Harmer, J. 2007. The Practice of English language Teaching (4thed). Harlow: Pearson. • Lado, R. 1977. Language Testing: The Construction and Use of Foreign Language Tests. London: Longman. • Stanley, J.C. dan K.D. Hopkins. 1978. Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall.