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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

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  1. PowerPoint Slides for Advanced Manufacturing Systems Computer Integrated Manufacturing Robotics Computer Numerical Control Design and Quality Control Computer Control and Automation Lasers and Sensors Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Education Office of Career and Technical Education Services

  2. Slide Index Beginning Slide for Each Concept/Duty Area Slide What Is Advanced Manufacturing Systems? DTE8427.001 Basic CIM Functions DTE8427.006 Typical Team Briefing Agenda DTE8427.009 Early Industrial Development DTE8427.014 What Is Economics? DTE8427.017 Planning for Production: Business Plan DTE8427.023 Engineering, Business, Manufacturing DTE8427.028 Cause-and-Effect Chart DTE8427.031 What Is the Supply Chain? DTE8427.036 What Is Green Engineering? DTE8427.042 Manufacturing Careers DTE8427.047

  3. Task/Competency DTE8427.001 What Is Advanced Manufacturing Systems? • Advanced ManufacturingSystems refers to a manufacturing environment committed to excellence, product quality, and customer satisfaction. • Advanced ManufacturingSystems combines the study of business concepts and technical applications as they relate to the manufacturing environment.

  4. Task/Competency DTE8427.001 The Primary Characteristic of Advanced Manufacturing Systems The ability to add value through the integration of technology into products and processes • Research suggests that about a quarter of all manufacturing fits this definition of advanced manufacturing. • CIT, 1997

  5. Task/Competency DTE8427.001 Additional Characteristics of Advanced Manufacturing Systems • Generates good jobs • Acts as an economic catalyst • Is an integral part of a technology-driven economy • Generates wealth • Anchors regional economics • Demands excellence CIT, 1997

  6. Task/Competency DTE8427.001 Six Characteristics of Advanced Manufacturing Companies • Quality is the number one priority. • Customers are the focus of everything the company does. • Continuous improvement is a company’s most formidable competitive weapon. • Employee participation is a way of life. • Suppliers, distributors, and the surrounding community are partners. • Integrity is never compromised.

  7. Task/Competency DTE8427.001  2000

  8. Task/Competency DTE8427.001 Source: NAM/Fortune Manufacturing Index  2000

  9. Task/Competency DTE8427.003 Manufacturing in Virginia • Manufacturing employment declined between 1991 and 1996, with preliminary figures for 1996 at about 398,500—down from 412,000 in 1991. • Virginia’s manufacturing base is diverse, with heavy reliance on defense and traditional industries such as apparel, textiles, and furniture. • Virginia’s manufacturing promise is in information age electronics. CIT, 1997 Source: Grant Thornton, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 1999.

  10. Task/Competency DTE8427.003 A Typical Virginia Manufacturer • More than 90% of Virginia manufacturers employ fewer than 250 workers, which earns the classification of “small” business. • Almost all of these manufacturers fabricate discrete parts, ranging from simple consumer-oriented products to the more sophisticated computer-based machinery. • Manufacture of this type of product is much more prevalent than continuous manufacturing, which produces commodities such as petrochemicals, flour, and steel. For that reason, the focus will be on the needs of small- to medium-sized manufacturers of discrete parts. • CIT, 1997

  11. Vice President Human Resources Vice President Production Vice President Financial Affairs Vice President Marketing President Employee Relations Director Production Planning & Control Director Financial Director Marketing Research Manu-facturing Manager Public Relations Director Purchasing Manager Manu-facturing Engineer Training Director Controller Quality Control Director Safety Director Sales Manager Inspection Manager Industrial Engineer Motivational Manager Tooling Designer Task/Competency DTE8427.003 Hierarchical Organization Distribution Manager Advertising Director

  12. Task/Competency DTE8427.003 Dynamic Organization President Marketing Finance Production Human Resources

  13. Task/Competency DTE8427.006 Basic CIM Functions • Product design • Process planning, scheduling, and control • Dynamic simulation of FMS • Equipment selection • Quality assurance • Facility layout

  14. Automated Material Handling CAD/CAM Technology Robotics Computer Technology Artificial Intelligence Information Systems Task/Competency DTE8427.006 Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Relationships

  15. Task/Competency DTE8427.009 Typical Team Briefing Agenda 1. Outline of major items to be presented 2. Key “top-down” information: The key messages and information being communicated from top management down to every employee (according to chief executive's current standard briefing requirements) 3. Questions 4. Information on and overview of the organization's current performance and activities, e.g., recent statistics, new programs and activities, staff news, (based on wider sources of information, e.g., briefings of divisional heads) 5. Questions

  16. Task/Competency DTE8427.009 Typical Team Briefing Agenda, continued 6. Information specific to the particular team from team leader/briefer: detailed look at past month, including performance/achievement and other indicators, new initiatives, forthcoming activities and work program, organizational changes 7. Questions 8. Personnel issues usually initiated by central human resources/personnel unit: changes in arrangements or conditions, information on national and organization's negotiations of pay and conditions, industrial relations information, new procedures, welfare issues 9. Questions 10. Miscellaneous, e.g., congratulations on team member successes in professional or voluntary work, private life, and other items

  17. Task/Competency DTE8427.009 A Successful Team Player • Shares responsibilities of the entire group • Shares information with others • Listens while others are speaking • Respects other’s opinions • Compromises to resolve conflicts • Contributes ideas to brainstorming • Contributes a “fair share” of work and uses group time effectively • Encourages and motivates others • Follows written and verbal instructions • Follows group norms and rules

  18. Task/Competency DTE8427.009 Brainstorming A conference technique by which a group attempts to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously contributed by its members

  19. Task/Competency DTE8427.009 Brainstorming Strategy • Generate ideas. • Record ideas. • Eliminate weak ideas. • Arrange remaining ideas in logical order. • Transfer ideas to finding a solution.

  20. Task/Competency DTE8427.009 Fishbone Technique Topic Web Brainstorming Tools

  21. Task/Competency DTE8427.010 Executive Summaries These are short reports that are meant to convey the essential points of an issue. Key parts are: • Background information to help reader understand the problem or issue • Main conclusions of the problem or issue • Recommendations you wish to make about the problem or issue

  22. Task/Competency DTE8427.010 Seven Steps to an Executive Summary 1. Read the entire article or document. 2. Underline, circle, or highlight the main ideas and information that support the main ideas. 3. List the main ideas. 4. Add supporting information to each main idea. 5. Link your main ideas together. 6. Read the summary again. 7. Look at the final summary.

  23. Task/Competency DTE8427.010 Presentation Skills • Know your audience. • Familiarize yourself with the environment for your presentation. • Demonstrate good people skills to achieve a positive first impression. • Prepare your message. • Be prepared to answer questions. • Evaluate your presentation.

  24. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 What Is Workplace Communication? • Workplace communication involves the entire workplace—among managers, supervisors, workers, union representatives, and customers. Both the workforce and the company benefit from effective workplace communication. • Workplace communication is central to changes that are being made in the workplace and is at the core of improved quality and productivity. If you review the list below of key concepts that are commonly connected with restructuring, and consider how these might be achieved in practice, you begin to realize the important role communication plays in the workplace.

  25. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Key Concepts Used to Describe the “New Workplace” • Working in teams • Demonstrating collaborative quality management • Using multi-skills • Taking up the challenge of new technologies • Participating in industrial relations • Engaging in new ways of learning—both on-the-job and/or off-the-job

  26. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Downward Communication Important in ensuring that decisions taken by senior management result in consistent action by employee, and also aims to build greater commitment and improvement in standards of service • Traditional hierarchical communication: written and verbal instructions move downward from the boss to groups, and to the employee • Formalized employee participation rights • General staff information by means of notices, staff bulletins, newspapers, annual reports, training programs (this now includes radio, video, and computer bulletin board systems) • Building “company spirit” and loyalty: family-friendly policies, health/wellness center, and recreational opportunities

  27. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Downward Communication, continued • Informal “cascade” systems—the “grapevine” • Formal “cascade” systems, e.g., group meetings, information, and team-building conferences and seminars • Team briefings • Managers “walking the job”: checking on effectiveness of communication and “penetration” of essential information • Total Quality Management systems

  28. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Upward Communication Important in helping management to understand and be alert to employee concerns and problems, provides information necessary for good decision-making, and improves motivation • Staff suggestion and complaints procedures • Formalized employee participation rights • Staff attitude surveys • Staff meetings, either direct or through trade union structure • Managers “walking the job”: informal discussions with workers • Quality circles of work teams

  29. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Effective Communication Techniques • Situation • Communication between management and employees related to work matters • Communication in meetings • Information on technical procedures • Training • Communication to clients and customers • Types of Written Document • Notices, memos, policy documents, forms, reports • Minutes, agendas • Instructions, standard operating procedures, technical reports • Manuals, notices, tests • Letters, notices, forms related to work matters Notices, memos, policy documents, forms, reports Communication in meetings Minutes, agendas Information on technical procedures Instructions, standard operating procedures, technical reports Training Manuals, notices, tests Communication to clients and customers Letters, notices, forms

  30. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Who Is Responsible for Identifying and Developing Plans and Strategies for Meeting Workplace Communication Needs? • Managers and employees are responsible for identifying workplace communication needs and developing workplace- and industry-specific plans and strategies to improve communication. • Organizations often use consultative committees to coordinate the tasks. Effective consultative committees are comprised of management, union representatives, and employees, working in cooperation to achieve common objectives. • If a consultative committee has not been established in your workplace, consider forming a committee to examine workplace communication.

  31. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 How Do You Identify Workplace Communication Needs? The main purpose of the consultative committee is to determine how oral and written information is communicated and if it is effective for everyone.

  32. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Breakdowns in Workplace Communication • Breakdowns refer to problems with language and literacy skills or to the way information is constructed and disseminated. For example, poorly written instructions are unlikely to be followed. • Communication must be assessed for clarity and effectiveness. • Identifying employees who need to improve their language and literacy skills is the first step to improvement.

  33. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Four-Step Process Step 1: What types of written communication are used? Collect samples of written communication that the workforce is expected to read, write, and act on. Examples include • Workplace handbooks • Equipment manuals • Memos • Workplace forms • Instructions • Quality reports • Meeting agendas, minutes, and • Customer service reports reports (for example, from • Warning and safety signs management, quality, shift, and safety meetings)

  34. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Step 2: How effective are these communications? • Examine examples of workplace handbooks, manuals, shift reports, workplace forms, safety signs, and job sheets. • Ask for suggestions, from those who are using the written communication, about ways to improve them. • Is the purpose of the communication evident? • Does the communication clearly tell you what to do and how to do it? • Does the document tell you what you need to know and what is expected of you? • Are abbreviations and acronyms defined in the document? • Do you understand the technical words/terms?

  35. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Step 3: What are some ways to communicate orally? • Informal networks • Formal meetings

  36. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Step 4: Can workers participate fully in all areas of spoken and written communication? • When the kinds of communication that occur in your workplace have been identified, find out if the employees can use the information to do their jobs effectively. Note: Seeking guidance from language/education experts may be necessary.

  37. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Workplace Communication Is Effective and Efficient. Meeting Information 1. Meetings are used to exchange information and to make decisions. One way to check the effectiveness of meetings is to examine agendas, minutes, and reports from a variety of meetings. Use this checklist as a guide: • Do all meetings have agendas? • Does the meeting agenda have start and finish times? • Does the agenda list meeting topics? • Are minutes produced after each meeting? • Do the minutes include actions to be taken as a result of the meeting?

  38. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Meeting Information, continued 2. Ask people who have attended a range of meetings to assess them. Use these questions as a guide: • How useful are meetings to you in performing your job? • In what ways are they useful? • How can meetings be improved? • Are meetings your preferred source of information? (If not, what is your preferred source?) • Do you receive sufficient notice of meetings? • Do meeting agendas let you know clearly what is expected of you at meetings? • Are you given the opportunity to have input at meetings?

  39. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Ask the Workforce. Ask a number of people in the workplace how well they understand what to do at work and how to do it, especially with regard to safety requirements, meetings, and company training sessions. Use these questions as a guide: • Do you understand the instructions about your job from your supervisor? • Do you think your managers understand you when you give them information? • Can you read the machine manual? • Can you read the instructions on the job sheet? • Can you answer the questions your supervisor asks about your job? • Do you rely on someone else to talk for you?

  40. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Ask the Workforce., continued • Can you read and understand safety signs in your workplace? • Can you fill in the accident report form? • Do you rely on someone else to fill in workplace forms for you? • Do you understand discussions at safety meetings? • Can you follow written materials given out in training sessions? • Can you understand a trainer's spoken instructions? • How do you find out about changes in the workplace? • How would you like to find out about changes in the workplace? • Do your customers tell you that they don't understand your workplace documents (letters, notices, instructions, delivery notes)?

  41. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 What Do You Do Next to Implement Improvements in Workplace Communication? What Are Your Priorities? Decisions can be made after meeting information, workplace communications, and feedback have been examined. You may find that the only problem in your workplace is that meeting agendas are distributed too late for participants to prepare for meetings. This is an easy problem to solve.

  42. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 What Do You Do Next to Implement Improvements in Workplace Communication? What Are Your Priorities?, continued More likely, the committee will determine that meeting minutes, workplace forms, shift reports, oral instructions, and workplace training manuals are not understood. This may be due to poor writing or inadequate reading skills. Some workers may have non-English speaking backgrounds or may be poorly educated.

  43. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Where to Start To respond to this, the committee needs to ask the following: • What are the priorities for improvement? • What results do you want? • What changes need to be made to achieve these results? • How will these results help the business accomplish its objectives? • How will these results help the business carry out its strategies? • What is it costing us not to make any improvements to workplace communication?

  44. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Where to Start, continued The answers to these questions can lead to information relevant to a Project Brief. Following are some operational questions to ask. • How much time can we spend on improving workplace communication? • Is training required? • Who needs to be trained? • What sort of training is required? • What are the implications for managers and workers? • What needs to be done to support those being trained? • How much will it cost? • How much money can we spend? • Is government funding available, and is there anyone else with whom we should discuss this? • What are the processes and procedures in the workplace for policy approval and implementation?

  45. Task/Competency DTE8427.011 Where to Start, continued • Who will make the decisions? • How will we know when we have achieved the result we want? • What are the likely costs in • Staff time • Time away from existing duties • Staff travel • Printing • Postage/telephone/fax • Internal copying • Production costs • Consultant costs • Training costs

  46. Task/Competency DTE8427.014 Early Industrial Development • Abraham Darby smelts coal in England to start Industrial Revolution. • The Industrial Revolution spreads through Europe and to America through immigration. • The Industrial Revolution is based on cottage industry, which consists of home-based manufacturing. • The first successful American factory is a cotton-spinning mill in 1790.

  47. Task/Competency DTE8427.014 Industrial Revolution to 1900 • Duryea brothers begin producing gasoline-powered car. • Eastern Kodak is founded. • Scientific studies and inventions are applied to change production processes for textiles and commodities. • Milling of grain and its subsidiary products become the largest manufacturing industry. • Vast quantities of natural resources are available for manufacturing. • Capital available for investment industry increases, making abundant resources and low interest rates, which encourages manufacturing companies to invest in machinery and expansion. • Increases in technology enable companies to manufacture products more efficiently, implement major changes, and develop new inventions.

  48. Task/Competency DTE8427.014 Manufacturing 1900 to 1950 • President Roosevelt, working with U.S. manufacturers, pursues improvements in naval capabilities. • Henry Ford founds the Ford Motor Company. • American companies become world leaders in manufacturing. • A strong internal waterway system reduces transportation costs and increases the level of operational efficiency. • Operational efficiency:level of outputs produced exceed the level of inputs required in the production process.

  49. Task/Competency DTE8427.014 Manufacturing Innovation and Experimentation • World War I leads to U.S. manufacturing innovation. • The invention of the airplane saves time, labor, and distribution costs, allowing companies to become more productive and efficient. • Electricity offers a cheap source of energy for powering production facilities and distribution centers, reducing costs, providing more money to go toward research and development. • The invention of the assembly line by Ford allows larger quantities to be produced at lower costs. Ford also increases wages to build loyalty and increase his consumer market.

  50. Task/Competency DTE8427.014 The Labor Force and the Workers’ Rights • Davis Bacon Act determines wage rates and fringe benefits and establishes the standard 8-hour workday. • Social Security Act of 1935 establishes retirement benefits, disability benefits, old age, and survivors’ insurance. • The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 defines minimum wage, maximum hours, overtime compensation, and restrictions on child labor.